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How To Manual Blog

How To Manual Blog

  • All About Leather
  • applying color
  • cleaning
  • leather-cleaning-conditioning
  • Repair Instructions

Aerosols


Spraying Aerosols:

Storage

Do not store aerosols below 59F (15C). If they have been stored below this temperature do not use them until they come up to room temperature. Aerosols contain a mixture of product and propellant and at lower temperatures the product wants to “drop out of the propellant”. When this happens, either the aerosol button nozzle and/or dip tube may become clogged. When sprayed the product may come out in blobs and fall on your work. Aerosols can also be placed upside down for storage to prevent settling of product. Shaking the aerosols once a week will extend self life.

Shaking

The contents of any aerosol can tend to settle toward the bottom. Shaking before each use to completely mix the ingredients prior to spraying will insure that you will be getting the proper mixture of finish, sheen, solvent and propellant.

Apply Thin Coats

Thin coats do not sag or run. Thin coats dry faster, are more flexible and are less likely to have adhesion issues. Select the correct aerosol button: Small (fine spray) or Large (medium/heavy spray).

Don’t Spray Too Close

To get the ideal spray pattern, keep the spray tip about 12 inches from the surface. Too close leaves too much finish; too far away and your finish actually starts to dry in the air, depositing specks of pebbly finish rather than a smooth, liquid coat.

Note: if the coating looks or feels rough, there's a good chance that you were too far away.

Keep Moving

To avoid leaving a small puddle of finish, start spraying a few inches off to the side, then slowly and steadily draw it across the surface, stopping only after you have gone past the opposite end. Repeat the process with continuous passes, each one over-lapping the previous one slightly.

Clean the Aerosol Button Nozzle & Dip Tube

Whenever you stop spraying, turn the can upside down and depress the nozzle until nothing is coming out except clear propellant. The propellant forces any remaining finish out of the dip tube and nozzle before it dries, keeping it clear for the next time.

Use the Blow Out Button (BOB) for dip tubes that are hard to clear out. Replace aerosol buttons (AB) when they become clogged.

Temperature

Avoid spraying on a hot day. Applying the product in high temperatures can accelerate the drying process and cause the coating to dry before it adheres to the surface, sometimes creating a sandpaper-like finish. Cool the surface before spraying. The optimum temperature is 72ºF.

Note: Do not spray in direct sunlight, a spot in direct sun will be much hotter! 

Wholesale accounts


Classic Dye Products offers a special "login & registration" for wholesale customers which is only available to the trade.

Select the WHOLESALE button at the top of the home page to establish a NEW WHOLESALE ACCOUNT.  
Select LOGIN/REGISTER  > Create Account > Create Wholesale Account

To login use the Email & password you created.

Wholesale prices are displayed after approved login and are only available to the trade. After receiving an email "you were successfully registered", please wait for email confirmation that your account has been approved.

Already an established customer but first time ordering online? Select the

LOGIN/REGISTER  button to establish an online account. Be sure to enter your company name along with your account number if known.

After receiving an email "you were successfully registered", please wait for email confirmation that your account has been approved.

Once approved enter your E-MAIL and PASSWORD in the "LOGIN" to show the correct pricing for EACH TIME you visit the web site.

Prep Cleaning


Cleaning & Preparation For Re-coloring & Dyeing

A complete, thorough prep cleaning is the most important step in the coloring process to insure maximum adhesion of all products to the surface and durability.
 Nearly all pieces are protected by coats of anti-adherent products that must be removed before proceeding with the coloring process. Always use clean lint free towels or paper towels.

Leather

1) Prep Cleaning Protected & Finished Leather:

Thoroughly prep clean the area to be repaired or re-colored with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC). Triclean is the only cleaner needed to remove dirt, body oils, silicones and waxes. Spray a wet coat of Triclean, use a nylon brush or a white scotch brite pad to scrub completely. Take extra time on the stitching, piping and leather creases. Repeat for optimum results.

Some leathers have a protective coating. Use 600-grit sand paper with (TC) Triclean to wet sand. This helps to break the surface tension of the protective coating, which can cause peeling if not removed.

Apply Triclean (TC) again and wipe clean with a clean lint free towel or a paper towel.

Note: Color match after prep cleaning.

1) Cracked or creased leather: Use sandpaper (600, 400, or 220 grit) to wet sand with Triclean to smooth all cracked & creased areas. Be sure there are no edges.

2) Prep Cleaning Aniline, Nubuck & Unfinished Leather: Thoroughly prep clean with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC) to remove all dirt, body oils, silicones and waxes. Use a nylon brush, then blot dry with a clean lint free towel or paper towel.

Vinyl

Prep Cleaning Vinyl: Thoroughly prep clean the area to be repaired or re-colored with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC) . Triclean is the only cleaner needed to remove dirt, body oils, silicones and waxes. Spray a wet coat of triclean then use a nylon brush or a scotch brite pad to scrub completely, take extra time on the stitching. Wipe clean with a clean lint free towel or paper towels. Repeat for optimum results.

Note: Color match after prep cleaning.

Plastic

Prep Cleaning Plastic: Thoroughly prep clean with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC) to remove all dirt, body oils, silicones and waxes. Spray a wet coat of triclean then use a nylon brush or a scotch brite pad to scrub completely, take extra time on the edges. Wipe clean with a clean lint free towel or paper towel. Repeat for optimum results.

Note: Color match after prep cleaning.

Carpet & Velour:

Prep Cleaning Carpet & Velour: Thoroughly prep clean the carpet or velour seat with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC) to remove all dirt, body oils, silicones and waxes. Spray a wet coat of triclean, scrub with a nylon brush, blot dry with a clean lint free towel or paper towel. Allow to dry before coloring.

Note: Color match after prep cleaning.

Applying Color


Applying Classic Leather Dye: Is quick and easy. Excellent results can be achieved with sponge brush or aerosol color. Can also be sprayed with air brush, mouth atomizers, prevals, crown spray tool or conventional spray guns (set the air compressor between 40 and 60 lbs. for best results).

- When spraying use long steady strokes, being sure to keep the gun moving.

- Pre-mixed and pre-matched colors are ready to spray. Just shake or stir, then strain and spray. Leaves a satin gloss finish which matches vinyl. For leather, add flat-ayd or dulling agent to reduce gloss, then strain and spray.

- Applying color in hot conditions or direct sun light may cause dye to dry too quickly. This will result in an unwanted rough finish. To slow down drying time of dye, add 2-5% water. Add Slip additive for a smoother finish. Rough finishes may also be buffed with a lint free towelette, or lightly sanded with 600-1200 grit sandpaper, then spray final coat.

When spraying in cold conditions, use a hair dryer or heat gun to dry between coats. Always warm the leather or vinyl before spraying.

Dye/Recolor Leather

Materials: sandpaper, cleaning supplies, hot air gun, drop cloths, masking tape, Classic Dye color, spraying equipment.

1) Use drop cloths and tape all exposed areas not being dyed.
2) Clean with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC) using a scrub brush or a scrub pad, to remove dirt and oils. Wipe up with paper towel or a clean lint free cloth. For extremely dirty leather or leather that has conditioner on it, a second or third cleaning is needed.
3) Sanding: (if needed) The original color coat tends to crack and should be sanded smooth or stripped before dyeing.
a) Light wet sanding - use 320#, 400# or 600# grit sand paper by hand or use a vibrating sander. Avoid sanding stitches.
b) Heavy sanding (for heavily cracked areas) use 220 grit sand paper, and wet sand with Triclean, followed by a finer sandpaper to finish. Take down to bare leather if needed. A sealer/primer is usually not needed for Classic Dye, but will help in adhesion of color in cracked or creased areas. Use (95FA) Flex Additive/Primer or (AFP) Aerosol Flex Primer as a sealer/primer.
4) Clean again with Triclean (use masking tape to test for adhesion).Office Map
5) Spraying or sponge brush:
a) Rub in first coat especially on creased or cracked areas. (Disposable plastic gloves help) or use sponge brush. Spray a medium coat on a small area (seat panel) and rub in or use sponge brush to spread. If it tends to dry too quickly, add water to the dye to slow down drying process. Allow to air dry or low heat dry.
b) Apply a light coat over entire area, air dry or low heat dry.
c) Apply additional coats light to medium. Two or more coats may be needed.
d) When coverage is satisfactory, check smoothness of leather. Sand with 1000# grit paper if needed.
e) Appy final coat if needed (always clear coat reds and metallics). Thin dye with clear base or spray straight clear base over leather, add (38) dulling agent or (35) flat-ayd to control gloss and add SLIP additive for smoothness. Allow to dry.
f) Buff lightly with a clean soft cloth or lint free towelette. Optimum cure time 8 hrs, though you can sit on the seat when dry to the touch. Apply leather conditioner as needed.

Dye/Recolor Vinyl

Materials: cleaning supplies, heat gun, drop cloths, masking tape, Classic Dye, spray equipment.

1) Use drop cloths and tape all exposed areas not being dyed.
2) Clean with Triclean to remove dirt and oils.
3) Match color: Clear base and pigments or use pre-mixed colors. Add SLIP additive as needed. Strain before spraying.
4) Spraying or sponge brush:
a) Apply a light coat over entire area, air dry or heat dry.
b) Apply additional coats light to medium. Two or more coats may be needed.
c) Apply final coat if needed. Always clear coat reds and metallics. Thin dye with clear base or spray straight clear base over vinyl. Allow to dry.
d) Add SLIP additive to last coat as needed.

Dye/Recolor Carpets

Materials: cleaning supplies, masking tape, drop cloths, Classic Carpet Dye.

1) Scrub heavily soiled areas with #TC - triclean prep cleaner or acetone for faster drying.
a) Use Redout or Red Relief for stains ( coffee, koolaid, etc.).
2) Tape and cover areas as needed to avoid over spray.
3) Match color.
a) Mix color slightly lighter than carpet.
b) Metallics may be added to color or lightly sprayed afterward (mix in with clear base).
4) Spray carpet (or rub in color with cloth) - allow to dry between coats. (Do not use a sponge to apply color to carpet. 
5) Remove tape and wipe off over spray.
6) Lightly brush as needed to attain softness.

Dye/Recolor Plastic

Materials: cleaning supplies, masking tape, overspray shield, drop cloths, Plastic Coater (PC).

1) Clean with Triclean (TC). Use the masking tape test to check for adhesion.
2) Tape and cover areas to avoid overspray.
3) Adhesion promoter.
a) Use Plastic Coater (PC) primer, spray 2 coats and allow to dry.
4) Match color with Classic Leather Dye.
a) Add 3% Crosslinker to color for added durability and adhesion.
b) SLIP additive can be added for a smoother finish.
Note: Add #38 Dulling Agent or #35 Flat-Ayd to dull the finish.

Dye/Recolor Hard Plastic - metallic finish

1) Clean with Triclean (TC). Use the masking tape test to check for adhesion.
2) Tape and cover areas to avoid overspray.
3) Select color - it's best to use the WB series of color.
a. Choose a pre-matched WB series metallic color.
4) Spray light coats of the WB metallic color. Allow to dry between coats.
Note: SLIP additive can be added for a smoother finish. For a high gloss finish, use a high gloss solvent base clear.

Dye/Recolor Fabric

1) Scrub heavily soiled areas with Triclean (TC) water based cleaner.
2) Tape areas as needed to avoid over spray.
3) Mix color in Carpet Dye Base (CD) clear base.
a) Mix color slightly lighter than carpet.
b) Brillant Metallic (202) may be added to color or lightly sprayed afterward (mix in with clear base).
4) Spray fabric - allow to dry between coats.
5) Remove tape and wipe off over spray.
6) Lightly brush to attain softness.
Often color can be matched to vinyl sides.
When dyeing stripes or checks thin the dye (with water) enough for the pattern to show through. Increase pigment % to completely cover pattern.

Leather Cleaning & Conditioning


Leather is a natural product that wears and ages with time. This results in less flexibility and surface cracks. Just like with human skin, proper nurturing and care is essential. The conditioning treatment required will depend on the state of the material.

After coloring, treat the leather with (ProC) Leather Conditioner. The conditioner will feed, protect and prolong the life of the leather. Proper maintenance of leather should be performed a minimum of twice annually to avoid cracks, dryness and further damage.

Maintenance Care

Aged/Worn Leathers NOT requiring coloring

Start by cleaning the piece. To avoid removing any of the protective layers inherent to all leathers, dilute the (#TC) triclean prep cleaner 10 to 1 with water. (SC) Strong cleaner may also be used.

Spray the cleaner once or twice on a damp cloth or applicator sponge and rub onto the leather area. Use a damp cloth to remove excess. Repeat the process until all of the piece/pieces have been treated.

After cleaning, apply (ProC) Leather Conditioner. This product has been developed with a unique formula which penetrates leather and adheres to leather fibers. Unlike other products, this product leaves no glossy film residue. The Leather Conditioner is PH balanced for leather.

The conditioner protects old and young leather from tears, cracks and premature aging, furnishing the right dose of lubrication to keep it strong and flexible. It is made with the finest oils to enable emulsion into microscopic droplets which adhere to the leather fibers, treating them without leaving oily residues.

Remember to shake the container before use. Application is simple. Apply the conditioner to a clean cloth or sponge and spread over the surface, covering the entire piece. Allow a few minutes to dry, buff with a clean dry cloth.
Repeat the process for highly worn and damaged leathers. In that case wait longer for the absorption of the conditioner before wiping clean. The (ProC) Leather Conditioner can be applied to all leathers: aniline, semi-aniline, protected, finished, unfinished, nubuck, suede, 2-tone, etc. Will not stain or change the leather color.

Primers


Process for water base colors:

Use a water base primer to complete the preparation process and promote the adhesion of water base colors to leather, vinyl and plastics. Include the surfaces that undergo the most wear such as bolsters, armrests and steering wheels.

Leather: Use (95FA) Flex Primer, (HT) Water Base Hi-Tac Primer or (AFP) Aerosol Flex Primer to promote the adhesion of water base colors to all leathers. Apply a medium coat of the Primer, allow to dry to touch. A hair dryer can be used to accelerate drying.

Vinyl: Use (95FA) Flex Primer or (AFP) Aerosol Flex Primer to promote the adhesion of water base colors to all vinyls. Apply a medium coat of the Primer, allow to dry to touch. A hair dryer can be used to accelerate drying.

Plastic: Process for water base colors:

Use (PC) Plastic Primer to promote the adhesion of water base colors to all plastic surfaces. Apply a light coat, then a medium coat of the Primer, allow to dry to touch between coats. A hair dryer can be used to accelerate drying.

Process for solvent & lacquer base colors:

Use (TP0123) Bulldog Plastic Adhesion Promoter to promote the adhesion of solvent or lacquer base colors on all plastics, both interior and exterior. Apply a light coat, then a medium coat of Bulldog Plastic Adhesion Promoter allow to dry between coats. Then apply a generous coat and allow at least 15 minutes to dry before applying the color.

King Ranch & Furniture Aniline Leather Dyes


CLEANING & PREPARATION:

A complete, thorough prep cleaning is the most important step in the coloring process to insure maximum penetration and adhesion of color to the unprotected leather fiber.

Thoroughly remove all dirt, body oils, silicones and waxes from the leather. If the aniline dye color can not penetrate the surface, it will not adhere.

1) PREP CLEANING: Spray a wet coat with (TC) Triclean Prep Cleaner over the entire area , use a soft nylon brush to scrub clean. Blot dry with a clean lint free towel or paper towel. Allow to dry completely. Use a hair dryer to speed up the drying process.

Check the leathers ability for penetration by placing a drop of water on several areas. Wait for minute, if the water leaves a dark circle, then the leather will accept aniline dye. If the water beads up with no dark circle, a second or third cleaning is required.

After the third cleaning and the water still beads up with no dark circle, try these options:

  1. Lightly sand the leather with #600 sandpaper. This may help to break the surface coating and allow penetration. Clean again with TC triclean prep cleaner and a soft cloth or paper towel.
  2. The last option is to re-color the leather in a top coated finish. See "applying color" In the repair instructions. This will change the feel and the look of the leather, but will provide a more durable and stain proof finish.

DYE ANILINE LEATHER:

2000 to 2008 King Ranch Interior Colors #AN-708 Castano Brown & #AN-709 Dk. Tan.

  1. Mix 2% crosslinker (#SL-7) into the aniline dye color.
  2. Apply a light coat of the aniline dye color by spray, wipe on or brush on method.
  3. Allow to dry. A hair dryer may be used to speed drying.
  4. Apply additional coats as needed, allowing each coat of color to dry to touch.
  5. To slightly increase the gloss, apply a top coat clear of AN aniline clear mixed with 2% crosslinker (#SL-7).

2009-2014 King Ranch Interior Color #SAC-707 Chaparrel.

This color has a semi-aniline finish. A light topcoat protective clear is applied by the factory over the color to help resist staining.

After prep cleaning with (TC) triclean, a light sanding with #600 sandpaper is required to remove the protective topcoat. After sanding, clean again.

  1. Mix 2% crosslinker (#SL-7) into the semi-aniline dye color.
  2. Apply a light coat of the semi-aniline dye color by spray, wipe on or brush on method.
  3. Allow to dry. A hair dryer may be used to speed drying.
  4. Apply additional coats as needed, allowing each coat of color to dry to touch.
  5. To slightly increase the gloss, apply a top coat clear of SAC semi- aniline clear mixed with 2% crosslinker (#SL-7).

ANILINE LEATHER CONDITIONER:

#ProC - Protection Cream is a leather conditioner/protector that replenishes the natural oils and conditioners in aniline leather.

This water based leather protection cream and conditioner is designed to protect leather against body oils, water and alcohol based stains as well as resist the effects of daily soiling.

Protection Cream will not stain or change the look and feel of the aniline leather.

Application: Wipe on medium wet coat of Protection Cream with a soft cloth, allow to penetrate and dry.

Leather Repair


Materials: Leather Soft Fill (LSF), Sub-patch Material (HAP), Leather Bond Adhesive (LA-1), Velour Fast Dry Adhesive (63), Leather Cream Fill (LCF), Deep Fill (DF11), Heavy Duty Repair Compound (HD), Leather Vinyl Repair Compound (LRC), Sub-patch Adhesive (HH66), Spatula (GR870), Tweezers (TW6) , Chill Bar (CB), Triclean (TC).

NOTE: If the damage is stitch-related, for example a loosened stitch, skip these repair techniques and consult the section “Blind Stitch Sewing Methods”.

Step 1: PREP CLEANING

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A. Use Triclean (TC) w/ nylon brush or a scotch brite pad.
The prep cleaning of the Leather is a vital & essential part of the whole repair process. This not only improves the look of the finished repair but also ensures maximum adhesion.
First, clean thoroughly with  Triclean prep cleaner (TC) to remove all dirt, wax and silicone contamination. Spray a wet coat of triclean then use a nylon brush or a scotch brite pad to scrub completely, take extra time on the stitching and leather creases. Repeat for optimum results.

Some leathers have a protective coating. Use 600-grit sand paper with Triclean (TC) to wet sand. This helps to break the surface tension of the protective coating which can cause peeling if not removed. Apply Triclean (TC)  again and wipe clean with a clean lint free towel or a paper towel.

Step 2: SUB-PATCH (when needed)

A. Select sub-patch material:  Sub-patch material (HAP) or Fine mesh (FM) .

B. Select sub-patch glue: Sub-patch adhesive (HH66) , Leather Bond Adhesive (LA-1), Velour adhesive  (63)

When a hole penetrates the leather all the way through to the foam insert a sub-patch. Use Sub-patch Material (HAP) or a piece of Fine Mesh (FM) (apply masking tape to one side of the fine mesh for reinforcement and to keep adhesive from adhering to the foam).

Cut the sub-patch slightly greater (at least ¼") than the diameter or length of the hole, in order to adhere to the edges of the repair area. Insert it between the foam and the leather with a palette knife or tweezers. Replace any missing foam to level out the repair area. Adhere the sub-patch with Leather Bond Adhesive (LA-1), Velour adhesive (63) or Sub-patch adhesive (HH66). Dry completely to ensure maximum sub-patch adhesion before the repair process. A hair dryer or low temperature heat gun can speed the drying process. Be careful inserting sub-patch so as not to cause a bump in the repaired area.

Step 3: REPAIR

Select method:

1) Heat cure repair (requiring a heat gun or a mini-iron for curing).

2) Air-dry repair (low heat repair)

Although it is much quicker to work with heat-curing products, most leather surfaces are thin, which requires constant temperature control of the surface (to much heat will shrink and wrinkle the leather). Use heat-cure repairs on thick leather surfaces structural damage where strength is needed, or when the hole has completely penetrated the leather.

In all other cases (scratches, topcoat damage, creases, etc), repair by using products that do not require heat. Remember, use air dryer to speed up the drying/curing. Be careful not to overheat the surface.

TIP: To control the temperature of the leather, place your hand near the repair. If your hand can not take the heat, neither can the leather.

AIR DRY REPAIR - LEATHER

REPAIRING SCRATCHES AND NICKS (LCF, LSF, SFF)

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Several filling products can be used for this process, each offering different filling capacities.

1) Always sand scratches or nicks first. Wet sand with Triclean (TC) using 600# or 320# sandpaper. After sanding, check to see if any filling is needed.

REPAIRING SMALL-TO-MEDIUM DAMAGES (LSF, DF-11 or LFF)

Fill the damaged area with a coat of Leather Soft Fill (LSF), this air dry medium filler sands easily. Use only 600# sandpaper.

Use a pallette knife when applying all products. Apply in thin layers, allowing for drying between coats.

A lightly moistened paper towel may help to spread the all products before they have thoroughly dried. Instead of sanding filler, lightly use Triclean (TC) to feather out the edges.

REPAIRING LARGE DAMAGES (LFF, DF-11)

Fill the damaged area with a coat of Deep Fill (DF-11) (can not sand) or Leather Fix Fill (LFF) (can be sanded with 220# sandpaper after drying). These air dry water base fillers are used for deeper scratches.

1) First apply a thin coat of Leather Bond Adhesive (LA-1) inside the repair area. Allow to dry.
2) Apply the leather filler in thin layers, allow to dry between coats or use a hair dryer to speed drying. Make sure to spread well over the edges of the damage when applying. Use a palette knife when applying all products. A lightly moistened lint free paper towel may help to spread the filler.
3) Topcoat with a thin layer of Leather Cream Fill (LCF). Dry completely.

REPAIRING SURFACE CRACKS

Since most surface cracks are the original color coat that is cracking and not the leather itself. Following these four steps can eliminate a majority of the existing cracks.

Step 1: Apply Triclean prep cleaner (TC) to the cracked surface, wet sand with 220 to 600-grit sandpaper (severely damaged surfaces may require 100-grit sandpaper). Apply more triclean as needed. Sand down to bare leather if needed.
Step 2: Wipe Triclean prep cleaner (TC) over the entire sanded area with a clean moist cloth or lint free paper towel to remove excess residue.
Allow the surface to dry before proceeding. Drying time may be accelerated with a hair dryer.
Step 3: For cracks in the leather, apply a leather crack fill (LSF or DF-11) with a palette knife. Air dry (use a hair dryer to speed drying) and then softly sand the surface to smooth the edges or use triclean with a palette knife to smooth edges.
(For large cracks, use the “Repairing Scratches and Digs” process explained above.)
Step 4: Cover the surface with one or several coats of Leather Cream Fill (LCF). This puts a final smooth skin coat on the surface to match the look and feel of the repair with the surrounding surface. Apply with a palette knife or just wipe on with a paper towel. Apply several very thin layers over the repair on the surface. Let air dry, or use a hair dryer to speed drying.

HEAT CURE REPAIR - LEATHER

1) Heat Cure Process: same as vinyl repair

NOTE: Leather repair compounds start curing at 350 degrees with a maximum temperature of 450 degrees. How much heat the leather can with-stand will determine the heat gun setting.

a) Glue in sub-patch material if needed.
b) Fill repair with Heavy Duty Repair Compound (HD) using palette knife.
c) Heat compound until it turns clear. Keep heat gun moving in a slow circular motion. Immediately press with chill bar to produce a flat repair and to pull the heat out of the repair so more compound can be applied. Re-heat repair and press with grain pad or grain paper.
d) When using a mini iron, Lay the Teflon Mat (TM) over the area and cure the compound by ironing it with medium pressure back and forth until the compound is cured. (Curing time depends on the thickness of the compound.

IMPORTANT: Before removing the “Teflon Mat,” apply the aluminum Chill Bar (CB) to the Teflon mat to cool the repair and keep the Mat from sticking.

Step 4: Sealing

Spray Flex Primer (95FA) or Aerosol Flex Primer (AFP) over the repair to seal and improve the surface for adhesion of the color. Aerosol Spray Grain (ASG) can also be use to seal the repair with a pebble grain effect.

Step 5: Texture

This process may not be required if a heat-cure repair was performed (Graining Pads can be used for the texture). However, when required, the following options can complete or improve the texture of the repair.

OPTION 1: For medium texture, spray the repaired piece with Water Base Spray Grain (S-3) or Aerosol Spray Grain (ASG) (water-base). For a smooth grain texture, spray with Water Base Spray-on-Grain (W-2). Use a Preval Sprayer for S-3 and W-2. The distance that the spray grain applied, determines the size of the pebble grain. This is option is very useful in the case of problem problems with matching the new texture to the original. To apply, simply spray the new texture over a wide area in and around the repair, even texturizing the entire piece if desired.

OPTION 2: Apply a coat of Leather Gel (LG) . After allowing 30-60 seconds of drying, wet a grain pad with water and press the graining pad onto the repair area and hold. Remove the pad and check grain. Re-apply the graining pad as long as the product has not dried. Or you can repeat the whole process if desired.

Step 6: Color

To color the piece, consult the Applying Color section of the training manual.

Carpet Repair


Materials: razor blade, (SPG) powergel or (63) Velour base adhesive, sub-patch material, and (HH66) sub-patch adhesive.

  1. Small holes:
    1. Cut out charred or damaged fibers.
    2. Scrape fibers from an area under the seat using a razor blade on its side, gently scrap.
    3. Fill hole with (SPG) powergel, or (63) adhesive and apply fibers.
  2. Large holes:
    1. Cut out charred or damaged fibers.
    2. Apply sub-patch material somewhat larger than damaged area by applying (HH66) sub-patch adhesive or (PT-20) Slo-Zap to top of sub-patch and bottom of carpet.
    3. Cut a patch (piece of carpet) from under seat or dash where it is not in view. Apply to hole using (HH66) sub-patch adhesive or (SPG) powergel.
    4. Scrape fibers from under seat and place around patch with (SPG) powergel or (63) adhesive.
  3. Dye if necessary.

Vinyl Repair


Step 1: CLEANING 


The prep cleaning of vinyl is a vital & essential part of the whole repair process. This not only improves the look of the finished repair but also ensures maximum adhesion. 


First, clean thoroughly with #TC triclean prep cleaner to remove all dirt, wax and silicone contamination. Use a nylon brush or a soft scotch rite pad to reach the stitching, creases and base of the texture. Wipe excess with a paper towel. Repeat for optimum results.

Step 2: SUB-PATCH 


If the hole penetrates the material all the way through to the foam, use (HAP) Sub-patch Material. (For very thin vinyl, use a piece of (FM) fine mesh, applying masking tape to one side so the sub-adhesive does not adhere to the foam). Cut the sub-patch slightly greater than the diameter or length of the hole, in order to adhere it to the edges of the repair area. Insert it between the foam and the vinyl with tweezers and/or a palette knife. You may need to use a little foam below the sub-patch to level out the repair area. Adhere the sub-patch with (HH-66) Sub-patch Adhesive. Allow adhesive to air dry or use low heat to speed drying. Check the adhesion of the sub-patch before continuing the repair.

Step 3: VINYL REPAIR

Select: 


a) Heat cure repair using heat gun
b) Heat cure repair using a mini iron
c) Air dry using grey crack fill
d) Air dry using cyanoacrylates (super glue)

Always take into account the type of vinyl to be repaired. Some vinyls are very thin, requiring constant temperature control of the surface. Therefore, in the case of small holes or tears, an air-dry repair process may be the best choice.

IMPORTANT: Be sure to adjust the heat gun temperature of the repair process depending how much heat the vinyl can take. Begin with a low temperature and in increase as is necessary to avoid unintentional damage.

a) Heat cure repair using Heat Gun (adjustable heat settings) Repairing Scratches (Heat Cure Repair)

Use a heat gun to heat the scratches, then press with grain pad. If scratches are deeper, fill the damaged area with (VRC-1) Vinyl Repair Compound, exceeding the damaged area by about a 1/2" and making the edges as smooth as possible. Use medium to high heat to cure compound, then press with grain pad.

Repairing Holes and Cuts (Heat Cure Repair)

For any vinyl damage that shows the foam, use sub-patch material (HAP), sub-patch adhesive (HH66) and Vinyl Repair Compound (VRC-1), in that order, to achieve a durable repair.

1) Adhere sub-patch 
material with HH-66 sub-patch adhesive.

2) Heat Gun Process:

NOTE: Vinyl repair compounds start curing at 350 degrees with a maximum temperature of 750 degrees. How much heat the vinyl can with-stand will determine the heat gun setting.

Apply Vinyl Repair Compound (VRC-1) to the damaged area, extending over the area by at least 1/2". Spread as smooth and evenly as possible. Heat with a heat gun till compound slightly clears. Press with a chill bar (CB) immediately to level and cool the repair. Check repair, repeat process as needed.

b) Heat cure repair using a Mini Iron

Repairing Scratches (Heat Cure Repair using a mini iron)

Fill the damaged area with (VRC-1) Vinyl Repair Compound, exceeding the damaged area by about a 1/2". and making the edges as smooth as possible. Lay the Teflon Mat over the area and cure the compound by ironing it with medium pressure back and forth (Mini Iron) until the compound is cured. (Curing time depends on the thickness of the compound and the heat of the Mini Iron.) IMPORTANT: Before removing the Teflon Mat, apply the aluminum Chill Bar to the Teflon Mat to cool the repair and keep the Teflon Mat from sticking. Repairing Holes and Cuts (Heat Cure Repair using mini iron) 


b2) Heat Iron Process:

Apply Vinyl Repair Compound (VRC-1) to the damaged area, extending over the area by at least 1/2". Spread as smooth and evenly as possible. Cut a piece of Fine Mesh (FM) to approximately 1/4” larger than the damaged area. Lay over the vinyl repair compound. Apply a coat of Vinyl Repair Compound over the Fine Mesh (FM) , making it as smooth and even as possible. 
Lay the Teflon Mat (TM) over the area and cure the compound by ironing it with medium pressure back and forth (with the Mini Iron) until the compound is cured. (Curing time depends on the thickness of the compound and the heat from the Mini Iron.)

IMPORTANT: Before removing the Teflon Mat, apply the aluminum Chill Bar to the Teflon Mat to cool the repair and keep the Teflon Mat from sticking. 
To texture the repair, place a Graining Paper over the repaired area. Lay the Teflon Mat over the Graining Paper and iron. A light browning of the paper indicates the repair may well be cured. Again, use the chill bar before removing the paper for inspection. 
Next, clean the repair with (TC) Triclean Prep Cleaner to remove any possible residue.

c) Air dry using #CF - Grey Crack Fill

Repairing Scratches (Air Dry - Grey Crack Fill)

Fill the damaged area with (CF) Grey Crack Fill, exceeding the damaged area by about a 1/2" and making the edges as smooth as possible. Allow to air dry. Sand smooth with 400# to 600# sandpaper. Check repair, repeat process as needed. Use spray grains for grain texture.

Repairing Holes and Cuts (Air Dry - Grey Crack Fill)

1) Adhere sub-patch 
material with HH-66 sub-patch adhesive.

2) Fill the damaged area with (CF) Grey Crack Fill, exceeding the damaged area by about a 1/2" and making the edges as smooth as possible. Allow to air dry. Sand smooth with 400# to 600# sandpaper. Check repair, repeat process as needed. Use spray grains for grain texture.

d) Air dry using Cyanoacrylates (super glue)

Repairing minor damages on a small area: 


To fill small holes, use the range of medium to thick cyanoacrylates such as (SPG) Power Gel, (FGC) Flex Gel Clear or (FGC) Flex Gel Black. 
This process should only be applied to smaller damages; although Flex Gel is considered to be the most flexible adhesive on the market, there are no cyanoacrylates as flexible as vinyl or vinyl repair compounds. Apply the adhesive directly on with a palette knife as delicately possible. Be sure not to leave any air holes inside the damaged area or on the surrounding borders/edges. Next, apply Zip Kicker (PT10 or PT15) to the adhesive to accelerate drying. Continue by sanding mildly with 220-600 grit paper until smooth. For deeper damages, apply a coat of Zip Kicker to the damage before applying the adhesive.

TIP: If you press the surface with a Teflon Mat and a Chill Bar immediately after spraying with Zip Kicker, you will lessen the size of any borders/edges and ensure a /closer surface level repair. Teflon Mat does not adhere to cyanoacrylates. 


TIP: If excess adhesive must be removed from the repair, use (PT16) Debonder, and wet sand with sandpaper.

Step 4: GRAIN TEXTURING

A good grain texture will help a repair to disappear.

a) Grain Pad Process:

Vinyl Repair Compound repairs for vinyl can be directly textured with a Graining Pad, using a heat gun. After curing compound, apply additional heat to the repair compound. The Vinyl Repair Compound will brighten and begin to smoke. At this moment, apply the graining pad to the smoking compound by pressing evenly with the Chill Bar to restore the texture to the repair. For areas larger than the Graining Pad, or to texturize the borders of the repair, apply the heat gun to specific areas of the repair and avoid heating the areas previously textured, then press the graining pad on the s smoking area to achieve the desired result.

If the surface level of the repair is inferior to the surface of the part, apply additional coats of Vinyl Repair Compound and repeat the curing process until the desired result is achieved.

In some cases, after observing and verifying that your repair has not achieved the desired result, you may need to repeat the process until the desired result is achieved. Keep in mind that excessive heat can damage thin vinyl. 


b) Grain Paper Process.

Place a Graining Paper over the repaired area. Lay a Teflon Mat over the Graining Paper and iron. Move the iron a slow circular motion. A light browning of the paper indicates the repair may well be cured. Use the chill bar to cool the grain paper before removing the paper for inspection. 
Next, clean the repair with (TC) Triclean Prep Cleaner to remove any possible residue due.

The following options can complete or improve the texture of the repair. Do not forget that the texture is as important as the color. 


Option 1: If it’s a soft/medium texture, give the repaired piece a smooth texture with (S-3) Water Base Spray Grain for medium medium-grain, or (W-2) Spray Grain for a soft gentle grain texture. Use a Preval Sprayer for both, note that the closer the spray is a applied to the surface, the more intense the resulting texture. To apply, simply spray the new texture over a wide area in and around the repair for even texturizing as so desired. 


Option 2: If you need an exact grain, apply a coat of (LG) leather gel over the surface, allow to dry. Remember that the thicker the applied coat, the deeper the resulting texture. Heat the area with a heat gun and press the graining pad onto the repair area. Repeat the whole process as desired.

Impression Grain Mold (making a grain pad) 


Materials: (VM-18) grain mold compound and (R) catalyst; 10 oz. plastic cup; stir stick; Triclean. 


1) Clean vinyl, leather, dash or door panels with Triclean. 

2) Fill plastic cup 1/4 full with grain mold compound and apply 6-8 drops of catalyst. (Additional drops will allow a faster curing time). Stir in completely. 

3) Spread on flat area that you wish to make a mold of. (For added durability, place a piece of vinyl (cloth side down) on mold while it is still wet. 

4) Allow ample time for curing (approx. 15 minutes minimum) of the grain mold. 

5) Trim off excess. (Write model of car on the piece of vinyl for future use).

Step 5: SEALING

This is an essential step to ensure maximum resistance for the repair, as well as hiding any flaws, marks or rings resulting from more difficult repairs. 
To seal, spray a light coat of (95FA) Flex Primer or (AFP) Aerosol Flex Primer over the repair. Allow to dry.

Step 6: COLOR


To color the piece, consult the corresponding training manual.

Red Out Stain Removal


RO-Red Out:

Red Out is a heat transfer process of removing red stains in carpet & fabric. 

    1. Stained area must be absent of any other cleaners or residue. If present, rinse area.
    2. Spray Red Out (RO) with a trigger sprayer. Apply liberally to center of stain and work to outside edges.
    3. Work Red Out into stain with brush and place a thin wet white cotton towel over stained area. (It’s important to use proper type of towel as described in this step.)
    4. Fill steam iron with water and place on cotton or high setting with steam on.
    5. Place steam iron on wet towel and depress for approximately 20 seconds, shift towel to wet area and proceed. Continue to move towel to clean wet area.
  • a) Important to keep towel wet with water.
  • b) If stain is persistent, apply more Red Out, brush into stain and repeat Step #5.

Velour & Cloth Repair


Materials: razor blade, (TC) triclean prep cleaner, velour fibers, (63) or (64) velour base adhesive, (53 or 57) velour spray adhesive, foam, dacron, (HAP) sub-patch material, preval sprayer, mouth atomizer or Wagner airless spray gun, an electrostatic flock applicator, or (A111) velour atomizer, curved needles and thread.

Step 1: CLEANING

The cleaning of the velour fabric is a vital & essential part of the repair process. This improves the finished repair and also ensures durability. Clean the area around the repair with (TC) Triclean Prep Cleaner. Allow to dry. If the damage to the fabric is a burn, the area around the hole has likely been burned as well. Remove any remaining burned fabric with knife, razor blade or small curved scissors.

Step 2: COLOR

Match the color as precisely as possible. Velour consists of small mixable fibers. Although the mixture will not turn out as pure as a paint mixture, a visibly identical match is possible. It is important to start with color combinations as close as possible to the original color.

Step 3: SUB-PATCH

If the hole penetrates the fabric through to the foam, use a sub-patch. There are three different techniques for this:
1) Sub-patch Material. Cut a small patch of (HAP) Sub-patch Material or use a piece of (FM) fine mesh, (applying masking tape to one side for reinforcement and to keep the adhesive from adhering to the foam) slightly greater (min.1/4") than the diameter or length of the hole. Insert it between the foam and the fabric with a palette knife or tweezers.

Replace any missing foam to level out the repair area. Adhere the sub-patch with (63) or (64) Velour Base Adhesive. Dry completely with a conventional hair dryer or low-temperature heat gun, then check the sub-patch adhesion. For a cut, pull the sides together, then secure with masking tape till dry.

Office Map


2) Cross-stitch for small, round holes. For this, you will need thread and a curved needle. First of all, thread the needle and tie a knot at the end of the thread. Insert the needle into the hole and pierce the fabric underneath coming upwards to a point near the edge of the repair. Then, before continuing to pierce the fabric from underneath upwards, cross the fabric to the other side of the hole. Follow this process, pulling the thread taut from time to time, taking care to adjust the tautness in order to prevent wrinkles in the fabric. When you’ve reached point B, make one more crossing, and then tie the thread. Secure the stitch by applying Velour Base Adhesive. This is a liquid adhesive, so it will penetrate between the thread and be absorbed by the fabric, becoming part of the original stitch.

Office Map


3) Zigzag cross-stitch for tears. Use thread and a curved needle. Thread the needle and tie a knot at the end of the thread. Insert the needle into the hole and pierce the fabric from underneath coming upwards at a point a bit fur further her from the edge of the hole (point A). Then proceed with a zigzag motion until reaching point B. Pull the thread taut to avoid wrinkles. Tie the thread, hiding the knot. Secure the stitch using Velour Base Adhesive. Being a liquid adhesive, it will penetrate between the thread and will be absorbed by the fabric, becoming part of the original stitch.

Step 4: FILLING TO SURFACE LEVEL

This is one of the most important steps leading to a finished quality repair. The objective is to fill the hole to surface level of the damaged area, using "Velour Base Adhesive" and velour fibers.
Apply Velour Base Adhesive to a level just below surface (a small amount of fiber can be mixed with the adhesive for color). This will insure that the fibers will not form a mound extending higher than the surface of the seat. Repair should be as level as possible.

However, to guarantee that the repair will not decrease in size when the adhesive completely dries hours later, begin the process by using a drop of "Velour Base Adhesive" and a small piece of single ply paper towel (cut its size to the shape of the hole). The paper towel brings up the level of the repair.
Apply the Velour Base Adhesive, one drop at a time with a piece of paper towel to the interior of the hole, working to the top of the hole. 4-6 layers may be needed. Apply the adhesive with a palette knife, always following the shape and direction of the original fabric. (This keeps the adhesive from being visible after drying).

Repeat the process if necessary to reach the surface level.
Important: At this point the hole should look completely filled and level. The less visible the hole, the better the final result.

Step 5: BORDERS & COLORED AREAS

For those fabrics that have multiple colors, or a small border, use colored pencils or colored markers.
NOTE: Use water to wet the tip of the colored pencils before using.

Step 6: VELOUR FLOCKING

Use masking paper or cut a hole in a piece of paper to protect any area that you do not wish to cover with Velour Spray Adhesive. Spray a moist layer of (53) or (57) velour adhesive spray (1-5% (SL-7) crosslinker can be added, but not needed, for added durability). Use a (465P) preval, (8210) crown spray tool, (432L) mouth atomizer, or Wagner airless spray gun to spray adhesive.

Apply velour fiber with the (A111) Velour Atomizer, (PROLOUR) Electrostatic Velour Applicator or (CP-PLUS) Electrostatic Velour Applicator.

Place fibers (up to 80%) in electrostatic velour applicator, attach ground clip to springs under seat or place a paper clip in the clip and ground to the adhesive. Hold applicator 4" from surface, press button and shake.
This will blend the area to conceal your repair. If using “Electrostatic Velour Applicator,” charge the fibers to stand up when applied into the adhesive, leaving a soft, velvety feel to the repair. Dry thoroughly. A gentle hot air blower can speed the drying time. Place (TM9) teflon mat over area to protect fibers while drying.

Step 7: SEALING & IMPROVING LOOK

Verify that the drying process is complete and then apply a soft layer of (STS) Soft Topcoat Spray over the repair to protect, seal and leave a soft, natural feel.

NOTE: Using a hair dryer during the repair process will increase the durability of the repair.

SEWING:

BLIND STITCH INSTRUCTIONS:

This technique is used to repair damage on original seams or where a seam can be used to hide the damage. This makes a new a seam without the need to disassemble the fabric. This technique works with one or two curved needles. The difference is based on which sewing process will hide the existing damage the best.

Office Map

First Step: MARK TRAJECTORY

First locate where the damage begins and finishes (the black lines). Mark with a colored pencil ( the red lines) a trajectory that surrounds the damage, beginning and finishing in a point before and after the damaged area. Make sure the distance is the same on both sides of the seam.

Second Step: STARTING POINT

SINGLE NEEDLE: Thread the needle and make a knot in the end of the thread. Insert the needle through damage and perforate the fabric from down upwards in an end of the drawn layout.

DOUBLE NEEDLE: Thread the needles and make a knot in the end of threads. Insert the first needle through the damage and perforate the fabric underneath upwards starting at one end as in the layout. Next insert the second needle through the damage and perforate the fabric from underneath upwards just to the other side of the seam in the same end of the layout. Afterwards you should have the thread from both needles next to each other simply separated by the original seam.

Office Map

Third Step: SEWING

SINGE NEEDLE: Follow movement of zigzags until arriving at the other end of the layout. Always try to make the distance between needle points, and from the damaged area, the same on both sides.

DOUBLE NEEDLE: Although this seem seems to be a complex explanation, without a doubt it is the easiest system to remember and perfect. First, try to find out what was the distance between the original seam and use that as a guideline. Simply use the needles to weave back and forth near the damaged area to create a new seam. Make sure to start far enough away from the original seam to create a strong stitch.

Let us suppose that in this case it is ¼". The procedure is simple, take the needle your left, insert it by the hole where it passes the thread of the needle on the right, and make the perforation point ¼" ahead always following the layout drawn. To continue do the same with the other needle. The two needles are in the side opposite of where they were, and ¼" more advanced. We already have the first perforation point. Now repeat this process, always following the layout drawn, and tightening the threads after each 4-5 perforation points.

DIAGRAMS NEEDLES MOVEMENT

Fourth Step: KNOT

SYSTEM TWO NEEDLES: When reaching the end of the drawn layout, the 2 threads are next to the other, as when started, (separated by the original seam). Make a double knot, one with the other, as if tying your shoes. Now continue to insert the needles downwards, making them move away from the weave of the seam to hide the knot under the seam. Pull the threads a bit, cut them as close as possible from the surface, the thread will hide by itself from a recoiling movement.

Office Map

SPORT CLOTH SEAT REPAIR

1) COLOR

Match the color as precisely as possible using the shorter Sport Cloth fibers. Velour consists of small mixable fibers. Although the mixture will not turn out as pure as a paint mixture, a visibly identical match is possible. It is important to start with color combinations as close as possible to the original color.

2) FILLING TO SURFACE LEVEL

This is one of the most important steps leading to a finished quality repair. The objective is to fill the hole to surface level of the damaged area, using "Velour Base Adhesive" and shorter velour fibers.
Apply Velour Base Adhesive to a level just below surface (a small amount of fiber can be mixed with the adhesive for color). This will insure that the fibers will not form a mound extending higher than the surface of the seat. Repair should be as level as possible.

3) VELOUR FLOCKING

Use masking paper or cut a hole in a piece of paper to protect any area that you do not wish to cover with Velour Spray Adhesive. Spray a moist layer of (53) or (57) velour adhesive spray (1-5% (SL-7) crosslinker can be added, but not needed, for added durability). Use a (465P) preval, (8210) crown spray tool, (432L) mouth atomizer, or Wagner airless spray gun to spray adhesive.

Apply velour fiber with the (A111) Velour Atomizer, (PROLOUR) Electrostatic Velour Applicator or (CP-PLUS) Electrostatic Velour Applicator.

Place fibers (up to 80%) in electrostatic velour applicator, attach ground clip to springs under seat or place a paper clip in the clip and ground to the adhesive. Hold applicator 4" from surface, press button and shake. This will blend the area to conceal your repair. If using “Electrostatic Velour Applicator,” charge the fibers to stand up when applied into the adhesive, leaving a soft, velvety feel to the repair. Dry thoroughly. A gentle hot air blower can speed the drying time.

Place (TM9) teflon mat over area to protect fibers. Use a wallpaper roller to lightly roll over the repair so the fibers lay down. Dry thoroughly. A gentle hot air blower can speed the drying time.

TIP: After drying, lightly iron the repair with a clothes iron to further help the appearance.

4) SEALING & IMPROVING LOOK

Verify that the drying process is complete and then apply a soft layer of (STS) Soft Topcoat Spray over the repair to protect, seal and leave a soft, natural feel.

NOTE: Using a hair dryer during the repair process will increase the durability of the repair.

Dash & Door Panel Repair


Step 1: CLEANING

The cleaning of the vinyl is a vital & essential part of the whole repair process. This not only improves the look of the finished repair but also ensures maximum adhesion.

First, clean thoroughly with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC) to remove all dirt, wax and silicone contamination. Use a nylon brush or a soft scotch rite pad to reach the stitching, creases and base of the texture. Wipe excess with a paper towel.

Repeat for optimum results.

Wet sand with triclean and 600-grit sand paper to breakdown original topcoat clear which can cause peeling if not removed. Clean with triclean again and wipe away thoroughly.

#DP - Dash Putty

DESCRIPTION: 2 part thick epoxy filler for plastic.

APPLICATION: Cut amount needed. Knead together to mix part A (inside) and part B (outside) completely. Apply, then allow to dry. Sand as needed.

#TF -Tuff Fill

DESCRIPTION: Hi-strength 2 part repair filler & adhesive for plastic, leather & vinyl.

FEATURES: Exceptional adhesion to leather, vinyl & plastic - Outstanding durability - Fast dry (50 second work time) - Sandable - 5 minute cure time - 50 ml size.

APPLICATIONS: Dispense equal amounts, mix completely. Apply with palette knife or spreader. Press in grain with grain pad within 2 minutes. Sand after 5 minutes.

Step 2: FILLING

Decide between an air-dry repair or a heat-cure repair (requiring a heat gun or a mini-iron for curing).

Note: Only vinyl surfaces can be repaired by heat cure processes, hard molded vinyl and plastic may distort when high heat is applied.

AIR DRY REPAIR

A) Light Damage: To fill small holes, use the medium - to high-density cyanoacrylates, such as Power Gel (SPG), or for more a flexible finish, Flex Gel Clear (FGC) or Flex Gel Black (FGB). Apply the adhesive directly or with a palette knife as delicately as possible. Be sure not to leave any air holes inside the damaged area or on the surrounding borders/edges. Next, apply Zip Kicker (PT10 or PT15) to the adhesive to accelerate drying. Continue by sanding mildly with 20-400 grit sandpaper until smooth. For deeper damages, apply a coat of Zip Kicker to the base of the damage before applying the adhesive.

Repeat process until desired results.

For small holes you can choose to pass directly to all the sealing process after filling to surface level.

TIP: If you press the surface with a Teflon Mat and a Chill Bar immediately after covering it with Zip Kicker, you will lessen any borders/edges and ensure a closer surface-level repair. The Teflon Mat will not adhere to cyanoacrylates.

B) Mid-Sized Damage: Use Dash Putty (DP), a practical solution for efficient molding and filling.

Cut a piece of Dash Putty and knead it together with your hands to obtain a uniform color. Then fill the damaged area, molding the Dash Putty in the hole, making sure not to leave any air holes. Remove any extra product and remember that Dash Putty starts to harden after 2 minutes. .

TIP: For a smooth finish, rub the Dash Putty with a wet finger or a damp cloth before hardening.

For any small holes or gaps, use A) "light damage" to finish off repair.

C) Mid-to-Large Sized Holes/Gaps: Use Tuff Fill (TF) with the Applicator (TFA).
Fill with (TF) Tuff Fill to surface level. The product consist of two components, squeeze out equal parts of both products A (clear) & B (black). Mix both components thoroughly on a flat surface (using a palette knife) to obtain a uniform mixture. Apply the mixture into the damaged area, even out the level of the repair during drying.

Approx. filling time: 50 seconds.

Approx. working/shaping/graining time: 2 minutes.

As the Tuff Fill hardens, use a Grain Pad to press in a grain. Sand after 2 minutes.
For any small holes or gaps, use A) "light damage" to finish off repair.

HEAT-CURE COMPOUND REPAIR

HOT IRON METHOD: (Vinyl only)

Before beginning repair, holes should be filled to within 1/8" of the surface. Now fill the repair to the surface, using Leather Repair Compound (LRC), low heat cure compound.

A) Repairing Small and Mid-Sized Damage:

Fill the damaged area with Leather Repair Compound, exceeding the damaged area by about a 1 1/4" and making the edges as smooth as possible. Lay the Teflon Mat over the area and cure the compound by ironing it with medium pressure back and forth (with Ultra Torch or Mini-Iron) until the compound is cured. Curing time depends on the thickness of the compound and the heat setting.

IMPORTANT: Before removing the Teflon Mat, apply the alum aluminum Chill Bar to the Teflon Mat to cool the repair and keep the Teflon Mat from sticking.
To texture the repair, place a Graining Paper over the repaired area. Lay the Teflon Mat over the Graining Paper and iron. A light browning of the paper indicates the repair may well be cured. Again, use the chill bar before removing the paper for inspection.

Next, clean the repair with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC) to remove any possible residue.

B) Repairing Larger Damage:

For greater damage (superior to the diameter of a finger) use Fine Mesh (FM) and Leather Repair Compound (LRC), low heat cure compound.

Before beginning repair, holes should be filled to within 1/8" of the surface
Apply Leather Repair Compound to the damaged area, protruding the area by 1/4”, as smoothly and evenly as possible. Then cut a piece of Fine Mesh to approximately 1/8” larger than the damaged area and spread it over the Leather Repair Compound. Now apply a coat of Leather Repair Compound over the Fine Mesh, making it as smooth and even as possible. Lay the Teflon Mat over the area and cure the compound pound by ironing it with medium pressure back and forth (with the Ultra Torch or Mini-Iron) until the compound is cured. Curing time depends on the thickness of the compound and the heat setting.

IMPORTANT: Before removing the Teflon Mat, apply the aluminum Chill Bar to the Teflon Mat to cool the repair and keep the Teflon Mat from sticking.

To texture the repair, place a Graining Paper over the repaired area. Lay the Teflon Mat over the Graining Paper and iron. A light browning of the paper indicates the repair may well be cured. Again, use the chill bar before removing the paper for inspection.

Next, clean the repair with Triclean Prep Cleaner (TC) to remove any possible residue. In some cases, after observing and verifying that your repair has not achieved the desired result, you may need to repeat the process until the desired result is achieved. Keep in mind that excessive heat can damage thin vinyl.

All Heat Cure Repair Compounds can be directly textured with a Graining Pad by using a heat gun instead of hot iron.

After curing, apply additional heat to eat the repair compound. The Heat Cure Repair Compound will brighten and begin to smoke. At this moment, apply the graining pad to the smoking compound by pressing evenly with the Chill Bar to the texture to the repair. For areas larger than the Graining Pad, or to texturize the borders of the repair, apply the heat gun to specific areas of the repair an and avoid heating the areas previously textured, then press the graining pad on the smoking area to achieved the desired result. If the surface level of the repair is inferior to the surface of the part, apply additional coats of Heat Cure Repair Compound and repeat the curing process until the desired result is achieved.

Step 3: SEALING

This is an essential step to ensure maximum resistance for the repair, as well as hiding any flaws, marks or rings resulting from the repairs.

To seal, spray or wipe on Plastic Coater (PC) as a primer. Spray with a spray gun or a Preval Sprayer (using a preval will also add a pebble grain finish) allow to dry, spray a second coat over the entire repair area to guarantee adhesion and a smooth, even finish.

Step 4: TEXTURING

Several options are available for achieving the perfect texture for your repair. Some grains offer varying degrees of intensity or flexibility, while others can be used for more complex textures. Before choosing, test the products on a smooth, un-textured part (cardboard – piece of plastic/vinyl – unnoticeable area etc.) with a small amount of each product in all different places. Then choose your texture.

Option 1: Restoring the exact original texture
Liquid Gel:

Option 2: Spray Grains

To give a pebble grain texture to the repair or the entire part:

  • (ASG) Aerosol Spray Grain (clear water-base) light to medium grain.
  • (S-3) Spray-On-Grain (clear water-base) medium grain.
  • (W-2) Spray Grain (clear water-base) for a light grain.
  • (39803) Chipguard (clear solvent-base) med. heavy grain.
  • (39853) Med. Texture Coating (black solvent-base) medium grain.
  • (39793) Heavy Texture (black solvent-base) heavy grain texture.

To apply, simply spray the new texture over a wide area in and around the repair, including over the entire piece if desired. You can increase the intensity of the texture by spraying closer to the surface.

Option 3:

Option 4: Other Textures

The cyanoacrylate adhesive (SPG) Power Gel can be used successfully for both small and medium repairs, using a very simple and quick process. Apply Power Gel on a small piece of scotch brite pad (red or gray) or foam. Dab the repair lightly to create a grain, spray with Zip Kicker to speed drying. If needed, lightly sand to achieve a desired texture.

Step 5: COLOR

To color the piece, consult the corresponding "Applying Color" part of the training manual.

Color Matching


MIXING COLORS

There are two possibilities for mixing colors:

1) Mixing using the Color Charts, formula colors and a precision scale.
2) Mixing manually (by eye) the different primary tinting colors to obtain the desired result. In either case, shake or stir the containers very well before use.

MIXING WITH FORMULA COLORS

Mixing with form formulas is the easiest method, since lack of experience in mixing manually can mean wasting dyes before getting the right color. With formulas you can obtain the desired color with minimal waste. Simply locate the formula number of the color on the Color Chart, then locate the formula number.

These are accumulative weights, DO NOT reset scale.

To make 8 ounces of color# 03:

  1. Place an empty, container on the scale and turn it on. Be sure the screen shows 0.0 gr.
  2. Add (101) White pigment till the scale reads 25.2 grams.
  3. Add (130) Red pigment till the scale reads 25.7 grams.
  4. Add (140) Dark Brown pigment to 34.8 grams,
  5. Add (160) Yellow Oxide pigment to 36.0 grams.
  6. Add Clear Base to 188.0 grams.
  7. Mix thouroghly.

The final product to add is CLEAR BASE, of which there are several kinds. Choose according to the material gloss to be colored.

CLEAR BASE: Considered universal due to its suitability for all materials (leather, plastic, vinyl, etc.). Available in (2000H) High Gloss, (2000) Satin and (2000M) Matte finishes.

PLASTIC PRIMER: (PC) Specially designed for plastics only.

CARPET DYE BASE: (CD) Specially designed for carpets. With or without metallic flake.

FURNITURE DYE BASE: (FB) Specially designed for furniture. Very flexible base. After adding CLEAR BASE, mix well.

Check the color match (spray a small amount and dry) and see if any adjustments are needed. If so, using the same colors previously used in the formula. Add a few drops at a time to the bottle and always mix well. The advice in the “Mixing by Eye” part will be helpful.

Remember that the color will darken slightly when dried, so dry a color sample beforehand to check the color match.

MIXING BY EYE:

This method requires more practice. Although the process is simple, it is much slower if you lack experience.

However, the more you mix the formula colors, the more knowledge and experience you will gain in mixing colors by eye. Remember when mixing with pigments (you may want to add a few drops of Clear Base when mixing your pigment to dilute the concentration of the pigment for mixing purposes only) (do not add to much or you will lighten your color and have a hard time matching your color).

Once you have achieved your color, you must mix with Clear Water Base (there is no adhesion qualities in pigments – the Clear Base in the adhesion base), the recommended proportion is 1 part pigment to 5 parts Clear Water Base. However, you can adjust the degree of pigmentation by varying the proportion of Clear Water Base you add to the mixture. After adding the Clear Base the color will lighten and then dry back to its original color.

COLOR TERMINOLOGY:

  • Saturation: The closer a color is to its purest form, the more saturated it is.
  • Value: The lightness or darkness color.
  • Hue: The purest form of a color; such as red, blue, green. With no added black, gray, white, or the color's complement.
  • Tint: A color with the presence of white. Lighter shade of a color. Pink is a tint of red.
  • Shade: A color with the presence of black. Darker shade of a color. Navy is a shade of blue.
  • Tone: Color plus Gray.
  • Primary Colors: Colors such as red, yellow, and blue. that cannot be mixed using other colors.
  • Secondary Colors: Two primary colors mixed together to make orange, green or purple. The brightest, most vivid green comes from mixing blue and yellow; most vivid purple from magenta and blue; most vivid orange from red and yellow. Using both sets of primaries in mixing offers the widest range of colors.
  • Intermediary Colors: Sometimes called tertiary colors, these are colors formed by mixing a primary with the secondary of that primary and another primary. In other words, if you mix blue with green, you get blue green, an intermediary color.
  • Neutrals: Colors which technically aren't colors, such as white, black, and gray, are called neutrals. Other colors may also be considered neutrals, such as various brown.
  • Aggressive (warm) Colors: Reds, Yellows and Oranges.
  • (cool) Colors: Blues, Greens and Violets.
  • Key Color: Dominant Color in mixture: Intensity or Chroma: The brightness or dullness of color.

COLOR DESCRIPTION

Primary Colors:

RED: Will lighten very dark colors while also changing HUE.
Adding: Blue makes Purple
Adding: Yellow makes Orange
Adding: White makes Pink
Adding: Black or Brown makes Maroon
To remove Red from color use the opposite color on the Color Wheel - Green

BLUE: Will darken light colors while also changing HUE.
Adding: Yellow makes Green
Adding: Red makes Purple
To remove Blue from color use the opposite color on the Color Wheel - Orange

YELLOW: Will lighten dark colors while also changing HUE.
Adding: Blue makes Green
Adding: Red makes Orange
To remove Yellow from color use the opposite color on the Color Wheel - Purple

Secondary Colors/Opposite Colors:

ORANGE: 50% Red - 50% Yellow
Will lighten dark colors. Will also change tone to Red/Orange side.
Very powerful color, takes very little to change HUE.

GREEN: 50% Blue - 50% Yellow
Will darken light colors. Will also change HUE to Green side.

PURPLE: 75% Red - 25% Blue
Will darken light colors. Will change HUE to Red side.

Tone/Tint/Shade Colors:

Black: Will darken any color. May also kill the brightness of a color.
White: Will lighten any color. May also create milky look to the color. Does not drastically change brightness of color in most cases.

Brown: 33% Black - 33% Red - 33% Yellow
Will darken most colors. Will also change HUE to Red/Orange side.

Grey: Mixture: 50% Black, 50% White.
Shade of Grey will be governed by percentage of Black/White used.

More White = Lighter Grey. Less White = Darker Grey.
Will change Brightness of color.
Will also be used to change Brightness of color without changing Value.

Color should always be described in the following manner, “the original panel is (lighter, darker, redder, greener etc.) compared to the paint sample.” Cleanliness of the panel, grayer (dirtier or muddy), brighter (cleaner appearance), must also be considered. Viewing the panel at several angles, the front, side and the top, is also must.

Spray a small color sample on the prepared surface and allowing sufficient dry time, look at the original finish and compare it with the color. When you answer the question “the car’s original finishing is (lighter, darker, redder, greener, has more blue, has more yellow etc.), it tells you what is needed to correct the difference in the color.

IMPORTANT TIPS

  1. Adjust for value (lightness or darkness) of color first. Adjust for hue (color) after adjusting for value.
  2. Air pressure affects color matching. The higher the air pressure (drier coat), the lighter the color. Similarly, the lower the air pressure (wetter coat), the darker the color will be.
  3. Use extreme caution when tinting light colors. Just a few drops will usually be sufficient.
  4. To lighten a color, use white or the lightest color in that formula. For those colors that require metallic, use silver metallic. If color contains BOTH white and metallic, tint first with metallic, then determine if white is needed to lighten.
  5. Before tinting a color, always allow the finish to dry, as most colors dry darker and have a slightly different cast.
    NOTE: The TRUE color is only developed by spraying (atomization); dipping or smearing will give a inaccurate color.
  6. Try always to tint with daylight conditions. Artificial light (fluorescent/incandescent) will not be as accurate to duplicate the color.
  7. Always clean adjacent panels thoroughly, and color match to a clean panel.

COLORING MIXING GUIDE

GREY

Starting Base: White - Black - Brown - Orange - Yellow - Beige
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are matching. Not all colors may be needed.

To Darken Add:
Black: Kills Brightness of Yellow/Orange tone while darkening.
Brown: Darkens while retaining Orange tone.

To Lighten Add:
White: Lightens, does not change tone.
Beige: Lightens Dark Grey while retaining Yellow tone.
Tone: Orange, Yellow.

Compensating:

If color is too orange: Add small all amount of Blue. Add small amount of white to compensate darkening effect.

If color is too Yellow: Add small amount of Purple. Add small amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Sometimes just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Orange/Yellow tone.
If Grey has a Greenish or Bluish tone, add a small amount of Green or Blue to the dye.

TAN

Starting Base: Beige - White - Brown - Yellow - Orange
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are making.

To Darken Add:
Brown: Darkens while retaining Orange tone.
Black: Darkens but kills brightness of Yellow/Orange tone.
Beige: Darkens very light colors. Retains Yellow tone.

To Lighten Add:
White: Lightens all colors. Does not dramatically effect Brightness.
Beige: Lightens darker colors. Retains Yellow tone.
Tone: Yellow - Orange.

Compensating:

If color is too Orange: Add small amount of Blue. Add small amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

If color is too Yellow: Add small all am amount of Purple. Add small amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Sometimes just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Orange/Yellow tone.
Tans are predominantly White with Yellow/Orange tones. Shading will most often be done using Brown.

BEIGE

Starting Base: Beige - Brown - Yellow - Orange - Red
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are matching.

To Darken Add:
Brown: Darkens while retaining Orange tone.
Black: Darkens but kills Brightness of Yellow/Orange tone.
Beige: Darkens very light colors. Retains Yellow tone.

To Lighten Add:
White: Lightens all colors. Does not dramatically effect Brightness.
Beige: Lightens darker colors. Retains Yellow tone.
Tone: Yellow - Orange

Compensating:

If color is too Orange: Add small amount of Blue. Add small amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

If color is too Yellow: Add small amount of Purple. Add small amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Sometimes just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Orange/Yellow tone.
Beige is predominantly White with Brown/Orange tones. Shading will most often be done using Brown.
Toning will most often be done using Orange, Red or Purple.

DARK BROWN

Starting Base: Brown - Black - Orange - Red - Yellow
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are matching.

To Darken Add:
Brown: Darkens while retaining Orange tone.
Black: Darkens but kills Brightness of Yellow/Orange tone.

To Lighten Add:
White: Lightens all colors. Will create a Milky effect in larger percentages.
Beige: Lightens darker colors. Retains Yellow tone.
Tone: Yellow - Orange - Red

Compensating:

If color is too Orange: Add small all am amount of Blue. Add small am all amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

If color is too Yellow: Add small all am amount of Purple. Add small am all amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

If color is too Red: Add small all am amount of Green. Add small am all amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Sometime times just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Orange/Yellow tone.

Dark Brown is predominantly Brown with Red/Orange tones. Shading will most of soften be done using Orange, Red or Purple.

A Milky finish will be created using larger am amounts of White and compensating the lightening effect with Black or Brown.

BLUE (with Green tone)

Starting Base: Blue - Black - Green - White - Beige - Yellow
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are matching.

To Darken Add:
Black: Darkens but kills Brightness of Blue tone.
Brown: Darkens while dulling Blue tone.

To Lighten Add:
White: Lightens all colors. Will create a Milky effect in larger percentages.
Beige: Lightens darker colors. Dulls Blue tone.
Tone: Blue - Yellow - Green - Brown

Compensating:

If color is too Blue: Add small amount of Orange. Green may also be added to make a Green/Blue effect.

If color is too Yellow: Add small amount of Purple. Add small amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

If color is too Green: Add small amount of Red. Add small amount of Black to compensate lightening effect.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Sometimes just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Blue/Green tone.
Blue/Green is predominantly Blue with Green tones. Shading will most often be done using Black.

Toning will most often be done using Yellow, Green or Blue. A Milky finish will be created using larger amounts of White and compensating the lightening effect with Black or Brown.

BLUE (with Purple tone)

Starting Base: Blue - Black - Purple - Red - White - Beige
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are matching.

To Darken Add:
Black: Darkens but kills Brightness of Blue tone.
Brown: Darkens while dulling Blue tone.

To Lighten Add:
White: Lightens all colors. Will create a Milky effect in larger percentages.
Beige: Lightens darker colors. Dulls Blue tone.
Tone: Blue - Purple - Red - Brown - Beige

Compensating:

If color is too Blue: Add small amount of Orange. Add small amount of Black to compensate lightening effect. Green may also be added to make a Green/Blue effect.

If color is too Red: Add small amount of Green. Add small amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

If color is too Green: Add small amount of Red. Compensate lightening effect with small amount Black.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Sometimes just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Blue/Green tone.
Purple is predominantly Blue with Red tones. Shading will most often be done using Black. Toning will most often be done using Magenta, Red or Blue. Requires more Red or Maroon to start base. Purple effect will intensify with larger quantities of Red or Maroon.

A Milky finish will be created using larger am amounts of White and compensating the lightening effect with Black or Brown.

RED

Starting Base: Red - Yellow - White - Orange - Blue - Brown - Beige
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are matching.

To Darken Add:
Blue: Darkens while retaining Red tone, will create Purple effect.
Brown: Darkens while dulling Red tone.
Black: Darkens but kills Brightness of Red tone, turns color Brown.

To Lighten Add:
Red: Will lighten if very dark, will intensify Red tone.
Yellow: Lightens while causing an Orange/Yellow tone.
Orange: Lightens while causing an Orange/Red tone.
White: Lightens all colors. Will create a milky or pink effect in larger percentages.
Beige: Lightens darker colors. Dulls Red tone.
Tone: Yellow - Orange - Maroon - Blue - Brown

Compensating:

If color is too Blue: Add small amount of Orange. Add small amount of White or Beige to compensate darkening effect. Red may also be added to compensate for the loss of tone.

If color is too Yellow: Add small am all amount of Purple. Usually shade does not require adjusting at this point.

If color is too Orange/Brown: Add small amount of Yellow. Blue may be added if way off, but compensate darkening effect with small amount of White or Beige.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Adding Black will create a Brownish appearance. Sometimes just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Red tone.

Red is predominantly Red with Yellow/Orange tones. Shading will most often be done using Blue.

Toning will most often be done using Yellow, Orange or Blue. A pinish finish will be created using larger amounts of White.

PURPLE/MAROON

Starting Base: Maroon/Purple - Blue - Red
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are matching.

To Darken Add:
Blue: Darkens while retaining Red tone, will create Purple effect.
Brown: Darkens while dulling Red tone.
Black: Darkens but kills Brightness of Red tone, turns color Brown.

To Lighten Add:
Red: Will lighten if ill very dark, will intensify Red/Orange tone.
Yellow: Lightens while causing an Orange/Yellow tone.
Orange: Lightens while causing an Orange/Red tone.
White: Lightens all colors. Will create a Milky effect in larger percentages.
Beige: Lightens darker colors. Dulls Red tone.
Tone: Maroon - Blue - Red - Yellow - Orange

Compensating:

If color is too Blue: Add small all amount of Orange. Add small amount of Black to compensate lightening effect.

If color is too Yellow: Add small amount of Purple. Usually shade does not require adjusting at this point.

If color is too Orange/Brown: Add small amount of Purple or Red. Blue may be added if way off, but compensate darkening effect with small am all amount of White, Yellow or Beige.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Adding Black will create a Brownish appearance. Sometimes just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Red tone. Maroon is predominantly Maroon with Red/Blue tones. Shading will most often be done using Blue.

Toning will most often be done using Maroon, Red or Blue. Maroon dye always intensifies Deepness of color. When correcting for small amounts of Yellow or Orange always add more Maroon dye to compensate for loss of Brightness.

A Milky finish will be created using larger amounts of White, which is many occasions desirable, and compensating the lightening effect with Maroon and Blue.

GREEN

Starting Base: Green - Yellow - Blue - White - Beige
Percentages will be determined by color to which you are matching.

To Darken Add:
Brown: Darkens but kills Brightness of Green tone, creates Brown tone.
Black: Darkens but kills Brightness of Green tone.
Blue: Darkens and intensifies Blue/Green tone.

To Lighten Add:
White: Lightens all colors. Will create a Milky appearance.
Yellow: Lightens while causing an Orange/Green tone.
Beige: Lightens darker colors. Retains Yellow/Green tone. Kills Brightness.
Tone: Blue - Yellow

Compensating:

If color is too Green: Add small amount of Red. Add small am all amount of Black to compensate lightening effect. Yellow may also be added to intensify Green/Yellow tone.

If color is too Yellow: Add small all am amount of Purple. Add small am all amount of White to compensate darkening effect.

If color is too Blue: Add small all amount of Orange. Green may be added but color will become Brighter.

Notes: Do not forget the killing effect that black has on the Brightness of a color. Adding Black will create a Brownish appearance. Sometimes just adding Black and White (Grey) will dull the Green/Yellow tone.

Green is predominantly Green with Yellow/Blue tones. Shading will most often be done using Black. Black and White (Grey) will be extensively used when making Green color matches.

ADDING ADDITIVES

Additives are available for adjusting the final finish.

WATER BASE
  • (35) Flat-Ayd : Shake vigorously before adding 5-30% to the color mixture to dull down the shine.
  • (38) Dulling Agent : Shake vigorously before adding 5-20% to the color mixture to dull down the shine.
  • (95FA) Flex Additive/primer: Add 5-20% to the color mixture to add flexibility to areas experiencing heavy use/wear. Also used a straight primer before color is applied.
  • (SLIP) Slip Additive: Lightly shake before adding 2-10% to the color mixture to soften the feel of the new surface.
  • (2000M) Matte No-gloss clear: Lightly shake before top coating over the original color to dull the sheen.
  • (2000H) Hi-Gloss clear: Top coat over the original color for a high gloss sheen.
  • (2000HW) Hi-Wear clear: Spray over repaired area as a final coat for extra chemical resistance, UV protection and durability.
  • (SL-7) Crosslinker: Add 1-3% to the color mixture for chemical resistance and to strengthen the adhesion of the color to any surface.

APPLYING COLOR:

Before color application, protect all areas that you do not want to color. Remember that small dye particles can be all shifted by air to undesirable spots, so spare no effort in protecting areas outside the area to be colored.

Use any of the various sizes of Masking Tape to cover these areas. Include drop cloths and plastic sheets for covering entire areas with just a single strip of Masking Tape. Remember to protect the corners.

IMPORTANT: Always strain the dye at least once with a fine strainer before filling the tool you will be using to apply it.

Always spray thin coats, dry to touch before spraying another coat.

One of the advantages of Water Base Colors is that after finishing the coloring process, the color will blend evenly without having to color a large area.

Note:

  1. If the Water Base Color dries too quickly, add a little water to slow drying.
  2. When color application is finished, check the smoothness of the part. If it is a bit rough, sand with 1000 grit. Also check the air pressure (turn down) and increase fluid adjustment.

PROTECTIVE COATS

Process for Water Base Colors

For protection from sunlight and abrasive cleaners, use the (2000HW) Hi-Wear Topcoat Clear with (SL-7) crosslinker.

Simply add a little of the color previously used for the repair and the required additives pair for the part you are working on and then apply in fine coats.

Available in HIGH GLOSS (2000H), SATIN (2000HW) & MATTE (2000HWM) finishes.

2008 Ford Harley-Davidson Edition


Refinishing Metallic Seat Inserts Instructions

Office Map

The anniversary edition Vintage Copper and Black color scheme is carried onto the interior that features Black with Dusted Copper leather-trimmed seats with logos embedded in the leather.

STEP 1

CLEANING & PREPARATION FOR RE-COLORING & DYEING

A complete, thorough prep cleaning is the most important step in the coloring process to insure maximum adhesion of all products to the surface and durability.
Nearly all pieces are protected by coats of anti-adherent products that must be removed before proceeding with the coloring process. Always use clean lint free towels or paper towels.

LEATHER

1) Prep Cleaning Protected & Finished Leather:
Thoroughly prep clean the area to be repaired or re-colored with (TC) Triclean Prep Cleaner. Triclean is the only cleaner needed to remove dirt, body oils, silicones and waxes. Spray a wet coat of Triclean, use a nylon brush or a scotch brite pad to scrub completely. Take extra time on piping, leather creases and the stitching. Repeat for optimum results.

This leather has a protective coating. Use 600-grit sand paper with (TC) Triclean to wet sand. Try to avoid sanding the stitching. This helps to break the surface tension of the protective coating, which can cause peeling if not removed.
Apply (TC) Triclean again and wipe clean with a clean lint free towel or a paper towel.

STEP 2

PRIMER

Use (95FA) Flex Primer, (HT) Water Base Hi-Tac Primer or (AFP) Aerosol Flex Primer to promote the adhesion of water base colors to the leather. Apply a medium coat of the Primer, allow to dry to touch. A hair dryer can be used to accelerate drying.

STEP 3

DYE RE-COLOR LEATHER

The color for 2008 Harley-Davidson Edition is a 3 stage color application.
Colors needed:

First Stage: Basecoat color - #F15 Med. Dk. Sable
Second Stage: Two-tone effect - #6505 Ebony
Third Stage: Topcoat metallic - #PM-210 Gold Metallic

**Be sure to add 3% #SL7 crossliner to all the above colors.**

1) First Stage: Spray 2 to 3 coats of basecoat color #F15 over entire area. Allow to air dry after each coat of color.

2) Second Stage: For a two-tone effect, turn down the air pressure setting to the spray gun and open the dye fluid flow. This will allow larger droplets of dye to be sprayed. Spray the #6505 in short bursts over the entire basecoat color. Dry completely. Spray additional coats of #6505 as needed till the overall color is dark enough.

3) Third Stage: The topcoat metallic color will slightly lighten the overall color. Spray a light coat of topcoat color# PM210 over the entire area. Dry to touch. Spray additional topcoat color as needed.

Optimum cure time 8 hrs, though you can sit on the seat when dry to the touch.

APPLYING COLOR

Classic Dye may be sprayed with mouth atomizers, prevals, crown spray tool or conventional spray guns. Set the air compressor between 40 and 60 lbs. for best results.

- Pre-mixed and pre-matched colors are ready to spray. Just shake or stir, then strain and spray.

- Spraying in hot conditions or direct sun light may cause dye to dry too quickly. This will result in an unwanted rough finish. To slow down drying time of dye, add 5-10% water or LPC as a thinner. Additional Slip additive may be added for a smoother finish. Rough finishes may also be buffed with a lint free towelette, or lightly sanded with 600-1200 grit sandpaper, then spray final coat. When spraying in cold conditions, use heat gun to dry between coats. Always warm the vinyl or leather before spraying.

CJ600 Scale Manual


PLEASE READ COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE USE

With normal care and proper treatment it will provide years of reliable service.

KEEP THE FOLLOWING POINTS IN MIND:

  • If the display becomes locked on Out2 please recalibrate the scale.
  • Avoid lengthy exposure to extreme heat or cold, your scale works best when operated at normal room temperature. Always allow the unit to acclimate to a normal room temperature for at least one hour before use.
  • Allow sufficient warm up time. Turn the scale on and wait several seconds to give the internal components a chance to stabilize before weighing. 


  • The cleaner the environment the better. Dust, dirt, moisture, vibration, air currents and proximity to other electronic equipment can all cause an adverse effect on the reliability and accuracy of your scale. 

  • Handle with care. Gently apply all items to be weighed onto tray top. Although this scale is designed to be quite durable, try to avoid rough treatment as this may permanently damage the internal sensor and void your warranty.
  • Avoid shaking, dropping or shocking the scale. This is a precision instrument and MUST BE HANDLED WITH EXTREME CARE.

IMPORTANT ADVICE: Place the item to be weighed on the platform, after the stable weight is displayed remove the item immediately. This will prolong the longevity and accuracy of this weighing instrument.

** These electronic scales are precision instruments. Do not operate near an in-use cell phone, cordless phone, radio, computer or other electronic device. These devices emit RF and can cause unstable scale readings. If your scale ever performs poorly, try moving the scale to a different room or location. This is a very precise scale - the display may seem to wander or jump when weighing. This is due to air currents or vibrations. Stable weighing is achieved when the display remains fixed for 3 seconds.

BATTERY OPERATION

  1. Three “AAA” size ALKALINE batteries are required.
  2. To install batteries:
    • a) Release the battery cover by sliding out-wards.
    • b) Place batteries into battery compartment aligned correctly.

    • c) Replace battery cover. DO NOT USE EXCESSIVE FORCE & DO NOT PRESS ON THE TRAY!
  3. The scale is now ready for battery operation.

CALIBRATION

IMPORTANT: This scale was professionally factory calibrated before shipment and does NOT need to be recalibrated by the end user. However, if you wish to recalibrate your scale we provide these instructions for calibration: Repeat calibration if the scale ever shows Out2. Incorrect calibration can occur if you do not follow the steps exactly. If your scale does not perform accurately, please try replacing your batteries before you calibrate. You will need a 500gram weight or set of weights to calibrate this scale.

NOTE: if you do not have access to a 500g weight you can purchase one at your local store or in emergency situations you can use coins or weights (100 US Nickels = 500g) as a 500g weight.

  1. Turn the scale OFF and Place the it on a Flat, very stable surface 
(Be certain the scale is OFF) 

  2. Press and hold the “ZERO” key for 5 seconds until a random large 
number appears on the display - then release the key.

  3. Press the ZERO key again, the display will show 2Ero then 500.0

  4. Gently place a 500 gram weight on the scale and wait 3 seconds.
  5. Press the ZERO key, the display will show CAL and then PASS, 
calibration is complete. Remove the weight and turn the scale off. 



FEATURES

  • * Power Up Segment test: 
When first turning the unit on, all segments of the display will appear as shown below. This display will remain for approximately 2 seconds and then reset to 0. 1:8:8:8:8 

  • * Overload
: When an applied load exceeds the 600g capacity. “EEEE” will appear on the display. Remove the excessive load immediately!
 Remember: You can permanently damage the scale by overloading it.
  • * Negative Value: 
Any tarred value or a value left in memory will be displayed as a negative number once all weight is removed from the unit. Press tare to re-Zero the unit.
  • * Auto Off: 
An auto shut off feature is provided to conserve battery power. The unit will automatically turn off after approximately 3 minutes of inactivity.

KEY PAD FUNCTIONS


* UNIT:
 Unit (mode) selection: Press and release the key once to change weight unit You can select g (grams), oz (ounces), dwt (pennyweight) or pcs (parts counting).


* ON/OFF: 
Press this key to turn unit on. Once the unit is on, press and hold the same key to turn the scale off.

* ZERO (TARE)
Press Zero to reset the scale to zero. This can be used for eliminating from a sample (or a Tray/Container) the weight value of a container weight is permanently removed for the remainder of the procedure. Just turn the scale ON, place the tray or container on weighing platform, and press the ZERO key. The scale will show 0.0 (or 0.00) on the display and you can add items to the container/tray.
NOTE: When the weight is removed from the weighing tray, the tared value of a container will be displayed as a negative number. Cycle the power on the scale to reset the scale to zero.

* COVER / BOWL- 
The CJ comes with a cover. Please keep your CJ covered at all times when not in use to protect from damage


* AC ADAPTOR- 
The CJ can be operated on AC power with a standard 6volt AC adaptor. Please only use the correct AC adaptor for this scale - an incorrect power AC adaptor can cause damage to the scale and possible fire or injury.

* PCS (Count) Sample sizes can be 10, 20, 50 or 100. 
The following steps outline the procedure for cumulative weighing of samples:


  1. Switch the scale on
  2. Use the UNIT key to put the scale into PCS mode.
  3. Now press the PCS key once*. The display will show “S=10“. Put 10 pcs of samples on the platform.
  4. Press the UNIT key (to lock in the weight). The display will show “10” and the scale is ready for counting.
NOTE: You can choose the quantity of samples as 20pcs , 50pcs or 100pcs by pressing the PCS key multiple times (instead of once). For 20 pc counting, the display will show “S=20". Put 20pcs samples on the platform, then press the UNIT key. The display will show “20” and the scale is ready for counting. The same instructions can be applied to 50pcs counting and 100pcs counting

All About Leather


1. ALL ABOUT LEATHER:

Leather Info - 

Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. The tanning process converts the putrescible skin into a durable, long-lasting and versatile natural material for various uses.

Leather is an important material with many uses. Together with wood, leather formed the basis of much ancient technology. The leather industry and the fur industry are distinct industries that are differentiated by the importance of their raw materials. In the leather industry the raw materials are by-products of the meat industry, with the meat having higher value than the skin. The fur industry uses raw materials that are higher in value than the meat and hence the meat is classified as a by-product. Taxidermy also makes use of the skin of animals, but generally the head and part of the back are used. Hides and skins are also used in the manufacture of glue and gelatin.


 Forms of leather:

There are a number of processes whereby the skin of an animal can be formed into a supple, strong material commonly called leather.

Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannin (hence the name "tanning") and other ingredients found in vegetable matter, tree bark, and other such sources. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and the color of the skin. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, and if left to soak and then dry it will shrink and become less supple and harder. In hot water, it will shrink drastically and partly gelatinize, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armour after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding. This is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping.

Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium sulfate and other salts of chromium. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather, and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is also known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium. More esoteric colors are possible using chrome tanning.

Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds. This is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the main type of leather used in chrome-free leather often seen in infant's shoes and in automobiles that prefer a chrome-free leather. Formaldehyde tanning (being phased out due to its danger to workers and the sensitivity of many people to formaldehyde) is another method of aldehyde tanning. Brain-tanned leathers fall into this category and are exceptionally water absorbent. Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process which uses emulsified oils often those of animal brains. They are known for their exceptional softness and their ability to be washed. Chamois leather also falls into the category of aldehyde tanning and like brain tanning produces a highly water absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made by using oils (traditionally cod oil) that oxidise easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather.

Synthetic-tanned leather is tanned using aromatic polymers such as the Novolac or Neradol types. This leather is white in color and was invented when vegetable tannins were in short supply, i.e. during the Second World War. Melamine and other amino-functional resins fall into this category as well and they provide the filling that modern leathers often require. Urea-formaldehyde resins were also used in this tanning method until dissatisfaction about the formation of free formaldehyde was realized.

Alum-tanned leather is tanned using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour, egg yolk, etc. Purists argue that alum-tanned leather is technically "tawed" and not tanned, as the resulting material will rot in water. Very light shades of leather are possible using this process, but the resulting material is not as supple as vegetable-tanned leather.

Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tanning, rawhide is not technically "leather", but is usually lumped in with the other forms. Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather, and is primarily found in uses such as drum heads where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching, or for making many varieties of dog chews.


 Leather types:

Full-Grain leather or Top-Grain leather is referring to the upper section of a hide that contains the epidermis or skin layer. It refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed or snuffed (otherwise known as Corrected) in order to remove imperfections on the surface of the hide. Only the hair has been removed from the epidermis. The grain remains in its natural state which will allow the best fiber strength, resulting in greater durability. The natural grain also has natural breathability, resulting in greater comfort for clothing. The natural Full-Grain surface will wear better than other leather. Rather than wearing out, it will develop a natural "Patina" and grow more beautiful over time. The finest leather furniture and footwear are made from Full-Grain leather. For these reasons only the best raw hide are used in order to create Full-Grain or Top-Grain leather. Full grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: aniline and semi-aniline.

Corrected-Grain leather is any Top-Grain leather that has had its surfaces sanded, buffed or snuffed in order to remove any imperfection on the surface due to insect bites, healed scars or brands. Top-Grain leather is often wrongly referred to as Corrected-Grain. Although Corrected-Grain leather is made from Top-Grain as soon as the surface is corrected in any way the leather is no longer referred to as Top-Grain leather. The hides used to create corrected leather are hides of inferior quality that do not meet the high standards for use in creating aniline or semi-aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected and an artificial grain applied. Most Correct leather is used to make Pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented.

Split leather is leather that is created from the fiberous part of the hide left once the Top-Grain of the raw hide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation the grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides the middle split can be separated into multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain. Splits can are also used to create Suede. The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Suede is "fuzzy" on both sides. Suede is less durable than top-grain. Suede is cheaper because many pieces of suede can be split from a single thickness of hide, whereas only one piece of top-grain can be made. However, manufacturers use a variety of techniques to make suede appear to be full-grain. For example, in one operation, glue is mixed with one side of the suede, which is then pressed through rollers; these flatten and even out one side of the material, giving it the smooth appearance of full-grain. Latigo is one of the trade names for this product. A reversed suede is a grained leather that has been designed into the leather article with the grain facing away from the visible surface. It is not a true form of suede.


 Other less-common leathers include:

Buckskin or brained leather is a tanning process that uses animal brains or other fatty materials to alter the leather. The resulting supple, suede-like hide is usually smoked heavily to prevent it from rotting.

Patent leather is leather that has been given a high gloss finish. The original process was developed in Newark, New Jersey, by inventor Seth Boyden in 1818. Patent leather usually has a plastic coating.

Shagreen is also known as Stingray skin/leather. Applications used in furniture production date as far back as the art deco period. The word "Shagreen" originates from France and is commonly confused with a shark skin and stingray skin combination. 


Vachetta leather is used in the trimmings of luggage and handbags, popularized by Louis Vuitton. The leather is left untreated and is therefore susceptible to water and stains. Sunlight will cause the natural leather to darken in shade, called a patina.

Slink is leather made from the skin of unborn calves. It is particularly soft, and is valued for use in making gloves.

Deer Skin is one of the toughest leathers, partially due to adaptations to their thorny and thicket filled habitats. Deerskin has been prized in many societies including indigenous Americans. Most modern deer skin is no longer procured from the wild, with "deer farms" breeding the animals specifically for the purpose of their skins. Large quantities are still tanned from wild deer hides in historic tanning towns such as Gloversville and Johnstown NY. Deer skin is used in jackets and overcoats, professional sporting equipment such as kendo bogu, as well as high quality personal accessories like handbags and wallets. It commands a high price due to its relative rarity and proven durability.

Nubuck is top-grain cattle hide leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface. 
There are two other descriptions of leather commonly used in specialty products, such as briefcases, wallets, and luggage. Nubuck is similar to suede, but its texture is finer. It differs in that suede is created from the inner side of a hide, whereas nubuck is created from the outer side of a hide, giving it more strength and thickness along with a fine grain. It is generally more expensive than suede, and must be coloured or dyed heavily to cover up the sanding and stamping process.

Belting leather is full grain leather that was originally used in driving pulley belts and other machinery. It is often found on the surface of briefcases, portfolios, and wallets, and can be identified by its thick, firm feel and smooth finish. Belting leather is the only kind of leather used in luxury products that can retain its shape without the need for a separate frame; it is generally a heavy-weight or full-grain, vegetable-tanned leather.

Nappa leather or Napa leather is extremely soft and supple and is commonly found in higher quality wallets, toiletry kits, and other personal leather goods.


The following are not 'true' leathers, but contain leather material.

Bonded leather or "Reconstituted leather", is not really a true leather but a man-made material composed of 90% to 100% leather fibers (often scrap from leather tanneries or leather workshops) bonded together with latex binders to create a look and feel similar to that of genuine leather at a fraction of the cost. Bonded leather is not as durable as other leathers, and is recommended for use only if the product will be used infrequently. Examples of products that are most commonly constructed with bonded leather are; Bibles, diaries, art books, desk accessories, hymnals, bags, belts, chairs, sofas, etc.

Bicast leather is a man-made product that consists of a thick layer of polyurethane applied to a substrate of low-grade or reconstituted leather. Most of the strength of bicast leather comes from the polyurethane coating. Bicast was originally made for the shoe industry and recently was adopted by the furniture industry. Most of the Bicast used today is created using inferior generic chemicals resulting in an inferior material. The result is a much stiffer product that tends to delaminate resulting in bubbles and cracking.


 Leather from other animals:

Today, most leather is made of cattle skin, but many exceptions exist. Lamb and deer skin are used for soft leather in more expensive apparels.
Kangaroo skin is used to make items which need to be strong but flexible, it is the material most commonly used in high quality bullwhips. Kangaroo leather is favored by some motorcyclists for use in Motorcycle Leathers specifically because of its lighter weight and higher abrasion resistance compared with cowhide, thus providing greater protecting in case of a fall on the roadway. Kangaroo leather is also used for high performance soccer footwear.

Leather made from more exotic skins has at different times in history been considered very beautiful. For this reason certain snakes and crocodiles have been hunted to near extinction.
In the 1970s, ostrich farming for their feathers became popular, and ostrich leather became available as a side product. There are different processes to produce different finishes for many applications, i.e., upholstery, footwear, automotive products, accessories and clothing. Ostrich leather is considered one of the finest and most durable in the world and is currently used by many major fashion houses such as Hermès, Prada, Gucci, and Louis Vuitton. Ostrich leather has a characteristic "goose bump" look because of the large follicles from which the feathers grew.

In Thailand, sting ray leather is used in wallets and belts in the same way as regular bovine leather. Sting ray leather is as tough and durable as hard plastic. The leather is often dyed black and covered with tiny round bumps in the natural pattern of the back ridge of an animal. These bumps are then usually dyed white to highlight the decoration. Leather clothing is also popular in Thailand.
In the United States, bison leather has become popular. It is used for gloves, jackets and some baseball gloves. It is rugged but supple and has a waxy feel.
Overall, leather comes from a variety of other sources, including the skins of cattle, hogs, goats, sheep, alligators, ostriches, kangaroos, Yak.
There is quite a wide range of different animal leather used both for Leather garments as well as Leather Goods such as Ladies Handbags, Gents wallets, Ladies Purses, Leather Belts, File bags and other customized leather articles.

The most commonly used leather types are Cow leather, Sheep leather, Buffalo Leather and Ox leather. The most expensive is Cow leather and then Buffalo leather, Ox leather and Sheep leather respectively. The Sheep leather is quite famous for its softness and mostly used in leather garments; however due to certain restrictions of its overall size; it cannot be used for long coats and there Cow leather and Buffalo leather is widely used.


 Leather production processes:

The leather manufacturing process is divided into 3 fundamental sub-processes: preparatory stages, tanning and crusting. All true leathers will undergo these sub-processes. A further sub-process, surface coating can be added into the leather process sequence but not all leathers receive surface treatment. It's difficult to have a list of operations that all leathers must undergo, as there are so many types of leather.
The preparatory stages are when the hide/skin is prepared for tanning. Preparatory stages may include: preservation, soaking, liming, unhairing, fleshing, splitting, reliming, deliming, bating, degreasing, frizing, bleaching, pickling and depickling.

Tanning is the process converts the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable material which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications. The principal difference between raw hides and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard inflexible material that when re-wetted (or wetted back) putrefy, whilst tanned material dries out to a flexible form that does not become putrid when wetted back. There is a large number of different tanning methods and materials that can be used, the choice is ultimately dependent on the end application of the leather. The most commonly used tanning material is chromium, which leaves the leather once tanned a pale blue colour (due to the chromium), this product is commonly called “wet blue”. The hides once they have finished pickling will typically be between pH of 2.8-3.2. At this point the hides would be loaded in a drum and immersed in a float containing the tanning liquor. The hides are allowed to soak (while the drum slowly rotates about its axle) and the tanning liquor slowly penetrates through the full substance of the hide. Regular checks will be made to see the penetration by cutting the cross section of a hide and observing the degree of penetration. Once a good even degree of penetration exists, the pH of the float is slowly raised in a process called basification. This basification process fixes the tanning material to the leather and the more tanning material fixed the higher the hydrothermal stability and increased shrinkage temperature resistance of the leather. The pH of the leather when chrome tanned would typically finish somewhere between 3.8-4.2.

Crusting is when the hide/skin is thinned, retanned and lubricated. Often a coloring operation is included in the crusting sub-process. The chemicals added during crusting have to be fixed in place. The culmination of the crusting sub-process is the drying and softening operations. Crusting may include the following operations: wetting back, sammying, splitting, shaving, rechroming neutralisation, retanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, filling, stuffing, stripping, whitening, fixation, setting, drying, conditioning, milling, staking and buffing.
For some leathers a surface coating is applied. Tanners refer to this as finishing. Finishing operations may include: oiling, brushing, padding, impregnation, buffing, spraying, roller coating, curtain coating, polishing, plating, embossing, ironing, ironing/combing(for hair-on)and glazing.


 Role of enzymes in leather production:

Enzymes like proteases, lipases and amylases have an important role in the soaking, dehairing, degreasing, and bating operations of leather manufacturing.
Proteases are the most commonly used enzymes in leather production. The enzyme used should not damage or dissolve collagen or keratin, but should be able to hydrolyse casein, elastin, albumin and globulin-like proteins, as well as non-structured proteins which are not essential for leather making. It is especially important to hydrolyse the elastin if the leather is to be limed, or treated with calcium hydroxide; if not treated properly before liming, the elastin will harden and the grain will be loose. .
Lipases are used in the degreasing operation to hydrolyse fat particles embedded in the skin.
Amylases are used to soften skin, to bring out the grain, and to impart strength and flexibility to the skin. This process is called bating.


 Preservation and conditioning of leather:

The natural fibers of leather will break down with the passage of time. Acidic leathers are particularly vulnerable to red rot, which causes powdering of the surface and a change in consistency. Damage from red rot is aggravated by high temperatures and relative humidities, and is irreversible.
Exposure to long periods of low relative humidities (below 40%) can cause leather to become desiccated, irreversibly changing the fibrous structure of the leather.
Various treatments are available such as conditioners, but some of these are not recommended since they impregnate the structure of the leather with active chemicals, are sticky, and attract stains.

2. TANNING LEATHER

Ancient methods of tanning:

In ancient history, tanning was considered a noxious or "odiferous trade" and relegated to the outskirts of town, amongst the poor. Indeed, tanning by ancient methods is so foul smelling that tanneries are still isolated from those towns today where the old methods are used. The ancients used leather for waterskins, bags, harnesses, boats, armor, quivers, scabbards, boots and sandals. Around 2500 BC, the Sumerians began using leather, affixed by copper studs, on chariot wheels.

Skins typically arrived at the tannery dried stiff and dirty with soil and gore. First, the ancient tanners would soak the skins in water to clean and soften them. Then they would pound and scour the skin to remove any remaining flesh and fat. Next, the tanner needed to remove the hair fibers from the skin. This was done by either soaking the skin in urine, painting it with an alkaline lime mixture, or simply letting the skin putrefy for several months then dipping it in a salt solution. After the hair fibers were loosened, the tanners scraped them off with a knife.

Once the hair was removed, the tanners would bate the material (see below) by pounding dung into the skin or soaking the skin in a solution of animal brains. Among the kinds of dung commonly used were that of dogs or pigeons. Sometimes the dung was mixed with water in a large vat, and the prepared skins were kneaded in the dung water until they became supple, but not too soft. The ancient tanner might use his bare feet to knead the skins in the dung water, and the kneading could last two or three hours.

It was this combination of urine, animal feces and decaying flesh that made ancient tanneries so odiferous.

Children employed as dung gatherers were a common sight in ancient cities. Also common were "piss-pots" located on street corners, where human urine could be collected for use in tanneries or by washerwomen. In some variations of the process, cedar oil, alum or tannin were applied to the skin as a tanning agent. As the skin was stretched, it would lose moisture and absorb the agent.

Leftover leather would be turned into glue. Tanners would place scraps of hides in a vat of water and let them deteriorate for months. The mixture would then be placed over a fire to boil off the water to produce hide glue.

Variations of these methods are still used by do-it-yourself outdoorsmen to tan hides. The use of brains and the idea that each animal (except buffalo) has just enough brains for the tanning process have led to the saying "Every animal has just enough brains to preserve its own hide, dead or alive."


Modern methods of tanning:

The first stage is the preparation for tanning. The second stage is the actual tanning and other chemical treatment. The third stage applies retanning agents and dyes to the material to provide the physical strength and properties desired depending on the end product. This is known as Retanning. The fourth stage is used to apply finishing material to the surface or finish the surface without the application of any chemicals if so desired. This final stage is known as finishing.

Preparing hides begins by curing them with salt. Curing is employed to check putrifaction of the protein substance (Collagen) because of the chance of bacterial infection due to the time lag that might occur from procuring it to processing it. It removes the excess water from the hides and skins where water flows from inside because of difference in osmotic pressure. Thus the moisture content of hides and skins get greatly reduced.In wet-salting, the hides are heavily salted, then pressed into packs for about 30 days. In brine-curing the hides are agitated in a salt water bath for about 16 hours. Generally speaking, methods employed for curing greatly make the chance of bacterial growth unfavorable. Thus curing is also done by preserving the hides and skins at a very low temperature.

The hides are then soaked in clean water to remove the salt and mainly to bring back the moisture content to a desirable level so that the hide or skin can be treated with chemicals in an aqueous medium. This process is known as "Soaking" and sometimes a hydrating agent is also employed along with water in a very low percentage for hides and skins which have become very dry.


Liming Process of Hides & Skins:

After soaking,the soaked hides and skins are taken for the next operation where these are treated with milk of lime with or without the addition of sharpening agents like sulfide,cyanides,amines etc.The objective of this operation are mainly to:
1) Remove the hairs, nails and other keratinous matters
2) Remove some of the interfibrillary soluble proteins like mucins
3) Swell up and split up the fibers to the desired extent
4) Remove the natural grease and fats to some extent
5) Bring the collagen to a proper condition for satisfactory tannage.

The weakening of hair is dependent on the break down of the disulfide link of the amino acid called cystine, which is the characteristic of the keratin class of protein like hair and wools.The hydrogen atoms supplied by the sharpening agent reduce the cystine molecule to cystine and the covalent links are ruptured. The iso electric point of the collagen is also shifted to around 4.7, due to liming which is more towards an acidic tannage.


 Unhairing Agents used during liming:

1) Sodium Sulphide 2)Sodium Hydroxide 3) Sodium Hydrosulfite 4) Arsenic Sulphide 5) Calcium Hydrosulfide 6) Dimethyl Amine 7) Sodium Sulphydrate

The majority of hair is then removed using a machine, with remaining hair being removed by hand using a dull knife, a process known as scudding. Depending on the end use of the leather, hides may be treated with enzymes to soften them in a process called "bating". But before bating,the pH of the collagen is brought down to a lower level so that enzymes might act on it. This process is known as "Deliming". Once bating is complete, the hides and skins are treated with a mixture of common salt and Sulphuric acid in case a mineral tanning to be done.This is done to bring down the pH of collagen to a very low level so as to facilitate the penetration of mineral tanning agent into the substance. This process is known as "Pickling". The common salt penetrates the substance twice as fast as the acid and checks the ill effect of sudden drop of pH.


Tanning:

Tanning can be performed with either vegetable or mineral methods. Before tanning, the skins are unhaired, degreased, desalted and soaked in water over a period of 6 hours to 2 days. To prevent damage of the skin by bacterial growth during the soaking period, biocides, such as pentachlorophenol, are used.

Vegetable tanning uses tannin (this is where the name tanning comes from). Tannin occurs naturally in bark. The primary barks used in modern times are chestnut, oak, tanoak, hemlock, quebracho, mangrove, wattle and myrobalan. Hides are stretched on frames and immersed for several weeks in vats of increasing concentrations of tannin. Vegetable tanned hide is flexible and is used for luggage and furniture.

Mineral tanning usually uses chromium in the form of basic chromium sulfate. It is employed after picking. Once the desired level of penetration of chrome into the substance is achieved,the pH of the material is raised again to facilitate the process. This is known as Basification. In the raw state chrome tanned skins are blue and therefore referred to as "wet blue". Chrome tanning is faster than vegetable tanning (less than a day for this part of the process) and produces a stretchable leather which is excellent for use in handbags and garments.

Depending on the finish desired, the hide may be waxed, rolled, lubricated, injected with oil, split, shaved and, of course, dyed. Suedes, nubucks, etc. are finished by raising the nap of the leather by rolling with a rough surface.

3. PATENT LEATHER

Patent leather is leather that has been given a high gloss, shiny finish. The original process was developed by Newark, New Jersey–based inventor Seth Boyden in 1818 with commercial manufacture beginning September 20, 1819. His process used a linseed oil–based lacquer coating. Modern patent leather usually has a plastic coating.

Patent leather is sometimes confused with poromeric imitation leathers such as Corfam and Clarino which are manmade materials with a similar glossy appearance.

Patent leather and poromerics are cleaned in a similar way. Dirt adhering to the coating can be removed with a damp cloth, using a mild soap if needed. Minor scratches and scuff marks in the coating itself can be removed using one of several special-purpose patent leather and poromeric cleaners on the market. With wear and tear, patent leather will eventually lose its glossy finish, but will still be smoother than most other types of leather, looking almost rubbery.

Patent leather and poromerics are used in applications where an eye-catching glossy appearance is the most important consideration. Examples include fashion items such as wallets and handbags, dance and uniform shoes, kinky boots and professional wrestling boots, and trench coats. In recent years patent leather has become a popular material for limited-edition sneakers made by companies such Nike, Bape, and Greedy Genius.


History:

Sporting a high gloss finish, patent leather has long been established as leather that is considered uptown and formal.

The history of patent leather begins in the early 19th century and owes its invention to Seth Boyden of Newark, New Jersey. During the year 1818, Boyden began to investigate the possibility of creating a version of leather that was treated in such a way that the material retained its desirable qualities of protection and durability. At the same time, this new type of leather would also have an appearance that would be decidedly more dressy than work boots and similar leather goods.

Using a formula that was based on a series of treatments using layers of linseed oil based coats, the new shiny leather began commercial production on 20 September 1819. Boyden’s efforts resulted in the production of glossy leather that quickly caught on as a complement for formal dress.

Patent leather begins as a superior grade of fine grain leather that undergoes a process to achieve the glossy look. Originally, this was accomplished by applying layers of a linseed oil finish to the leather, gradually creating the sleek appearance. As time went on, the invention of plastics impacted the methods for producing patent leather.

Plastic finishes were able to produce effects similar to the application of several treatments with linseed oil, with the advantage of considerably less monetary investment on the part of the producer. Over time, the development of synthetic resins further simplified the process and cut production costs even further, making the mass production of patent leather possible.

Characterized by a glass-like finish that catches the light, the typical patent leather accessory is a solid black. In addition to the mirror like finish, patent leather is also virtually waterproof, while still retaining a very flexible texture. The visual aspects of patent leather have made it a sought after material for formal accessories. Most men’s footwear produced to be worn with tuxedos are patent leather shoes. Many formal types of heels for women are also produced using patent leather. Clutches and small handbags for women are also made using patent leather, as well as some formal wallets and cigarette cases.

4. BUCKSKIN

Buckskin is the soft, pliable, porous preserved hide of an animal, usually deer, moose or elk, but potentially any animal's hide. Modern leather labeled "buckskin" may be made of sheepskin tanned with modern chromate tanning chemicals and dyed to resemble real buckskin. Leather is another product made from animal hide, but with a different chemical process to preserve the hide. Buckskin is preserved with a dressing of some kind of lubricant, physically manipulated to make it soft and pliable, and usually smoked with woodsmoke. Smoking gives buckskin its typical dark honey color, but is not required. Smoking prevents the tanned hide from becoming stiff if it gets wet, and deters insects from eating it as well. Unsmoked buckskin is lighter, even white, in color. Though it might be tempting to think that the name comes from buck, a male deer, the name buckskin comes from the alkali soaking process, called bucking. Clothing made of buckskin is referred to as buckskins.

There are many ways to make buckskin, but most can probably be lumped into two categories: "dry-scraping" and "wet-scraping". Before a hide can be tanned, any flesh remaining on the hide from the skinning process must be removed, usually with a scraper. Care must be taken when skinning, fleshing, and scraping a hide to prevent leaving any cuts or nicks in it which will be visible in the finished buckskin.

The dry-scrape method involves taking a wet deer hide and stretching it on a rack to dry flat. A scraping tool is then dragged perpendicular to the blade along the hair side, scraping off the epidermis and hair, including all the hair follicles. The flesh side should be scraped as well. When the entire hide is scraped, it is taken off the rack, rehydrated, and dressed.

The wet-scrape method involves scraping the wet hide on a smooth horizontal log, at stomach or sternum level. A steel blade or split leg bone can be used for a scraper. The hide is draped on the log, the person leans into it, holding the hide in place with their body and pushing the scraper away with both hands. The epidermis is scraped off, and the flesh side is scraped as well, to remove the membrane. If the hide is more than a day or two old, it should be bucked first. "Bucking" can be done in a solution of hardwood ashes in water, or simply lye in water. Bucking causes the grain layer (epidermis) to swell, making it more visible and easier to scrape off. If a small part is left on the skin it will poorly affect the finished product, so bucking is quite helpful. Bucking will also cause the hair to slip and fall off, if the hide is left in long enough. This is also valuable for some processes.

Once the hide has been scraped it must be dressed in a dressing solution. This can be made from the animals brain mixed into water, or from another emulsified fat. Egg yolks are an example of a commonly used, naturally-occurring emulsified fat. Another option is an oil and a soap mixed in water. Typically the wet hide is wrung out, then left in the dressing solution for 15 minutes or more, then wrung out and dressed again. Repeating this a third time ensures that the dressing reaches the middle of the hide.

The next step is stretching/drying. This is time sensitive, and has to be done from start to finish without stopping. The drying hide is continuously pulled and stretched in all directions, which lubricates the fibers of the hide with the oil of the dressing, and ensures that the fibers stay lubricated. This may be done on a rack with a stretching tool, or by hand. Often the hide is stretched against a steel cable or a rounded steel or wooden blade (with care not to cut the hide). This must be done until the hide is completely dry and no longer cool to the touch or else the finished buckskin will be stiff, and will have to be dressed and stretched over again.

The dry skin should now be totally supple and soft. If it gets wet at this stage it must be stretched again until dry, or it will revert to being a stiff piece of scraped rawhide. The water-soluble oils in the dressing will wash out with water. To waterproof the hide it must be smoked. When a hide is smoked, the non-water-soluble oil in the smoke bonds with the water-soluble oil in the dressing, making all of it non-water-soluble. Thus, a smoked hide can be washed, even with soap.

To smoke a buckskin it is folded in half and glued or sewn into a bag with an opening on one end. A pant leg or other cloth tube is attached to the opening of the buckskin bag. The smoking fire can either be in a woodstove or a hole in the earth. Either way a bed of coals is prepared, and the other end of the pant leg is roughly sealed over the opening of the smoker. The buckskin bag is suspended above the smoker, and sticks can be placed inside of it to prevent the sides of the bag from touching each other. A handful of dry, rotten ("punk") wood is thrown on the coals, and begins smoldering. Care is taken to prevent the cloth from catching fire, as the hide can be burned in seconds. Ideally most or all of the smoke is forced through the bucksin. All holes must be sealed or taped to force the smoke through. The hide is smoked until the smoke color penetrates through to the other side, then the hide is turned inside out and it is smoked again until it reaches a desired color.

The finished buckskin will shrink slightly after the first washing, so it should be washed or at least wet and dried before making clothing. Buckskin should be washed in cold water, and air dried. Hot water will destroy it. After drying it can be stretched or cabled for a short time to re-soften it. Nubuck is top-grain cattle rawhide leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface. It is resistant to wear, and may be white or coloured. Nubuck was used by cowboys as it was light and comfortable.

Nubuck is similar to suede, but its texture is finer. It differs in that suede is created from the inner side of a hide, whereas nubuck is created from the outer side of a hide, giving it more strength and thickness along with a fine grain. It is generally more expensive than suede, and must be coloured or dyed heavily to cover up the sanding and stamping process. The word nubuck is probably derived from "New Buck".

 

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